NASA's 225PB should be much better managed for 2025.
225 PB of storage is not a super large amount, especially by 2025. Today individual spinning disk drives and NVMe flash drives can support sizes of 16TB for a single drive. Storage subsystems deployed in a single T42U Rack can support up to 25 PBs.. So today that could be service in ~10 racks. By 2025 much better density should be expected. NASA should store its 225 PBs on and off prem. Access to the data on prem would not need to be encumbered by the high AWS (or ASURE) charges for access by all the offsite customers. NASA should also negotiate with the cloud providers for nearly free access from the worlds scientific communities, or choose another cloud.