* Posts by Dal90

35 posts • joined 6 Sep 2016

So, that's cheerio the nou to Dundee Satellite Receiving Station: Over 40 years of service axed for the sake of £338,000

Dal90

Re: 40 Students

>the Scottish Govt pay less than £2000 per year per student to the Universities, whereas they can charge £9000(+?) for RUK and non-EU students.

Bugger...

Connecticut, USA:

*Community College* which is the lowest cost, usually non-residential (i.e. live at home), tier average tuition is $5200 per student in tuition PLUS $14.000 in taxpayer money.

Our public research university on par with Dundee the tuition and mandatory fees for state residents are $13,000/year on top of the state taxpayer subsidies. Add another $12,000 for room and board if you want to live on campus, thought quick googling Dundee that looks to be about the same for what the list as "living expenses" near the campus.

Free online tax filing? Yeah, that'll soon be illegal thanks to rare US Congressional unity

Dal90

The year I filled out -- by hand -- three states plus federal taxes, I did appreciate Rhode Island's sense of humor:

https://imgur.com/gallery/VCzAzht

I'm single, small mortgage (2/3rds paid off), low property taxes, no kids, decent salary -- with the new $12,000 standard deductible I should be able to drop back to the 1040A "short form" because I can't add up enough expenses to bother itemizing anymore.

Absolutely silly I have to either transcribe to paper for free or pay a tax prep firm for the privilege of performing data entry for them in order to file online...when the state & federal revenue agencies already have the paperwork covering what I need to report.

Two Arkansas dipsticks nicked after allegedly taking turns to shoot each other while wearing bulletproof vests

Dal90

Re: only .22?!?

>bloody underestimate a fucking .22LR, these little bastards have almost as much energy as a 9x19para

If you define "almost" as "60% at best when comparing an upper end .22LR fired from a rifle to a lower end 9x19para fired from a handgun when measured in joules"

Look, I don't want to get shot be either but if you had to be shot by one I'm preferring the odds of surviving a .22LR.

Crypto crash leads to inventory pile-up at Nvidia, sales slaughtered

Dal90

Just napkin back math...

If an iPhone X costs $370 for Apple to buy, and they sell it for $1000...and Apple has to buy everything for it (like the screen).

I'm going to guess the gross margin on a $1000 video card is A LOT larger for Nvidia -- especially considering (I believe) they fabricate their own GPUs. They've already invested in the factory and tooling, the marginal cost for more GPUs is tiny.

Most of the investment in the ROI you're worried about isn't the $100 in silicon and labor to assemble each card...it is in the intellectual property to design, know how to manufacture, build the factory, and buy the tools to fill the factory.

========

Used to work at a newspaper. If there was a problem with the folders or inserters downstream of the press they'd rather run 5-10,000 copies on a 100,000 paper press run straight into the dumpster rather than stop the presses. It cost them that much in time to start back up again.

Any well matured industrial process your variable input costs per unit are pennies if not fractions of pennies on the dollar.

Head of Apple's insider trading program charged with… you guessed it... insider trading

Dal90

Re: WTF? He should *know* this is like shooting fish in a barrell for the SEC

SEC doesn't care about mens rea.

Literally. By law.

If the PDF attached to the article started with "United States Attorney for..." and had a criminal case # at the top...mens rea comes into play.

This isn't a criminal case.

It is civil and SEC doesn't have to prove state of mind, just that he was stupid enough to do it.

I helped catch Silk Road boss Ross Ulbricht: Undercover agent tells all

Dal90

Re: More Questions

They already had his name and address.

Just go to Amazon with the subponea based on the shipping records...no account, email, etc. needed.

Total Inability To Support User Phones: O2 fries, burning data for 32 million Brits

Dal90

Re: Not just O2

>Ma-Bell approved reliability and resilience - as of a few years ago anyway. In other words, have a landline backup if you care about 24/7/365 availability guarantees for 999 service.

Outside of core downtown areas, you haven't had Ma-Bell approved reliability since the early 1990s.

Better than the cable company to be sure. But the neighborhood concentrators used to reduce the number of copper lines running back to central offices and expand the availability of DSL rely on batteries that die in 24-48 hours. And I live in an area that hurricanes or ice storms produce widespread one to two week long power outages one to two times a decade.

My state has been slowly building out its own fiberoptic network connecting public buildings for this reason (loss of reliable telecommunication service). As long as the fiber is not cut (unusual from storms, since the the power lines usually take the brunt of the hit) and you have power (generator) for the optical network terminals, voice and data will continue to work.

OK Google, why was your web traffic hijacked and routed through China, Russia today?

Dal90

Re: Change it back quickly -

The really cynical side of me thinks the NSA wanted something domestically which they're not allowed to do. Now if it's passing the country's border it's fair game as foreign surveillance :/

As angels, rich dudebros suck: 1 in 5 Y Combinator women tech founders say they were sexually harassed

Dal90

Re: How long will it be...

>you do know how vanishingly rare false accusations of sexual impropriety are by

>women against men are, don't you

Between 2 per cent and 8 per cent of complaints are false reports, according to research from North America, the United Kingdom and Australia.

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/investigations/unfounded-sexual-assault-canada-main/article33891309/

"Vanishingly" is nonsensical exaggeration.

The Globe article cited does highlight the interesting range -- from 10% to 30% -- of cases police file as unfounded which does not necessarily mean false but indicates a lack of corroborating evidence to sort out claims. Is the range purely the result of police differences? Community differences in reporting?

There are reasons to call out both those who dismiss 30% of claims for suspicion that there is something amiss in their procedures, and to call out those who say false accusations are "vanishingly" rare for grossly distorting reality.

Y'know what? VoIP can also be free from pesky regulation – US judges

Dal90

Re: CCIE Opinion for those who care

>Given that limitation I'd have said it doesn't behave like a phone service.

Given that definition, POTS hasn't been a phone service for most people in the U.S. since some point between 1989 and 1999.

If you live in an area > 3 wireline miles (more or less) from the Central Office, or live in an area where it is cheaper to maintain fiber than copper, you are served by a Neighborhood Concentrator.

36 to 48 hours after the Concentrator loses power, its small battery bank gives out and you no longer have dial tone on your copper line. Unlike the minority of customers whose copper goes all the way back to the Central Office where a generator is chugging away keeping its battery bank charged.

Now the Concentrators are far superior to the cable company repeaters that have no backup power supply, but in areas subject to things like hurricanes and ice storms 48 hours is not enough to guarantee the level of service everyone had before 1980 or so.

The most reliable combination is if you have fiber to your building, then you only need to power the fiber switch at your premises. Folks relying on say a cable ISP with a voip-to-pots convertor can power that converter all they like but with no power to the cable repeaters it isn't going to connect to anyone.

Fire chief says Verizon throttled department's data in the middle of massive Cali wildfires

Dal90

Re: All these people agreeing with Verizon...

>When I was 14, there was a storm. Not a hurricane, Michael Fish

>said so. Either way it was catastrophic. I was at boarding school

>in a rural place surrounded by woodland, most of which was

>lying on the ground.

>

>That morning, BT was out with chainsaws and stuff, hooking up

>the phone lines. It took nearly a week before we had electricity.

>Yet the phone lines worked by mid morning.

I have throw actual hurricanes. The last two had 100% power loss to my town, with 7 days to reach 50% restoration (and nearly 100% in 10 days)

Vz Wireless was the only service to remain running uninterrupted.

Cable dropped immediately.

Wireless, other than Vz, dropped in 12 to 36 hours.

Most land line coverage ceased about 48 hours.

Wireless and landline service did not largely get restored until 5-6 days into the event barely ahead of commercial power restoration as the companies scrambled to get mobile generators towed in and connected.

We do not have the landline telephone system of the 1980s anymore. If you live more then DSL distance from a Central Office (roughly three miles by however the wire goes) you don't connect to a site with large batteries and big generators. You connect to a Neighborhood Concentrator that takes the copper and transfers it to fiberoptics for the run to the CO and they only have modest battery backups. Likely in urban areas even when you could home run to the central office, they'll use NCs even within the three mile limit of DSL.

That the commercial communications grid is reliant on commercial power out at the towers & concentrators is one reason my state (Connecticut) has slowly been building out its own government fiberoptic system. Communication cables rarely break, so as long as you have generators at the town hall / fire station / school to power the lasers the network stays up...unlike cable, telephone, or wireless phones these days.

Dal90

This is the opposite of a poster child for net neutrality. You don't want the FD competing for bandwidth with folks doing Facebook Live.

Had the FD hooked up with the correct division of Verizon, they would have had service with network preemption that gives public safety priority over ordinary consumers during high use times. The Feds have paid Verizon big money over the years to have better backup power supplies than their competitors and to prioritize and preempt other traffic for the benefit of three letter agencies.

ATT has gotten the award to manage FirstNet to rollout similar enhanced services for public safety.

Whether this FD chose an ordinary consumer plan because either they were too cheap, or Verizon failed to steer them to the right division & plans is hard to tell -- I'm sure any of the readers here who deal with any of the telecoms in corporate environments know how much of a shit show they can be until issues are escalated several levels.

Three more data-leaking security holes found in Intel chips as designers swap security for speed

Dal90

Investors

Buggy chips? 30% Performance hit to patch vulnerability...on systems meant to be run at near full utilization?

Near monopoly on data center chips?

Brilliant! Next few quarters looks good for everyone who makes stuff from chips through chassis!

It's official: TLS 1.3 approved as standard while spies weep

Dal90

Re: no-brainer for sysadmins

>.I don't see why you can't just park a reverse proxy in front that speaks TLS1.3

Client side Java app that only speaks SSLv2.

"It has been obsolete since 1997."

"But we had a vendor develop the app in 2001!"

"I can't help it you hired some developers whose skill level was copying from past projects and ignoring deprecation warnings."

We accept the risk. I keep obsolete load balancers running for a single application.

#FML

No big deal... Kremlin hackers 'jumped air-gapped networks' to pwn US power utilities

Dal90

>Keyword here: "networks". So were these "networks" air-gapped....or not?

What is your definition of network and air-gap?

If copying words off a printed page by typing it into my computer, have I just bridged the networks?

What I don't think I've seen a previous post mention is KVM systems. My guess is the most practical definition of air gap for commercial systems would exclude the connected, networked KVMs from being considered breaching the air gap.

These companies aren't going to have top talent staff in their data centers -- or remote sites -- around the clock. They also can't wait several hours in a snow storm for a senior sysadmin to drive in and take a look at realize its a fat fingered DNS entry that will take 15 seconds to fix and 45 minutes to fill out the emergency change record afterwards.

Isolate the critical systems from the internet on a fully "air gapped" network which has no router to outside systems. Tech support KVMs in, see they need to patch, tell the 24x7 Operations staff where to download it so they can transfer it by USB/DVD/Zip Disk/1.2 Quadrillion Floppies to the secure network, tech support then continues the patch via KVM.

Now if you happen to compromise a networked KVM, you can have fun with #!/bin/sh or powersHell sneaking in scripts here and there. Find a system with a C or other compiler installed things could be really interesting.

If you can't stay online to see grab the video output, write to innocuous looking files (or right into a log file so it is hidden in plain sight) and come back later to take snap shots of the screen as you look through the files.

US voting systems (in Oregon) potentially could be hacked (11 years ago) by anybody (in tech support)

Dal90

Re: Urrghgh. You mean...

>my mail-in ballot in 2004 may have been compromised

It was compromised by definition.

Mail in ballots are not, and can not be, considered secret under any circumstances.

Far too many ways to manipulate them from intimidation over a kitchen table to outright cash-for-ballots.

In-person, paper ballots (while the best system) have some pretty significant security issues, too. You need some strong controls in place so folks cast them privately and anonymously. You need a box designed so there is at least some randomness in the order the ballots are later read -- otherwise the privacy is compromised by simply aligning the ballots with the order folks deposited them to be read. In my town the privacy screens are vastly inferior to the privacy curtain the old mechanical voting machines afforded, and most people do not bother with a privacy sleeve to help conceal their ballot between the table and inserting into the tabulating machine.

The reality are both parties are, and historically have been, engaged in manipulating voting to their own benefit. Pennsylvania's Democrat controlled Supreme Court replaced a visually flagrant Republican gerrymander with their own more subtle but statistically consistently Democratic gerrymander.

Trump wants to work with Russia on infosec. Security experts: lol no

Dal90

To all of those who either want Trump to be stupid or compromised, he's not.

He's just a classic abuser who goes through life constantly keeping the people around him on their toes by a combination of bullying and sweet-talking.

His approach to politics, administration, and foreign policy can be neatly summed up by:

https://www.bustle.com/articles/152341-23-signs-your-partner-is-mentally-abusive-how-to-get-help

Trump probably has a higher IQ than most people would give him credit for, but he is entirely intellectually incurious and never mind playing chess he wouldn't make the effort to pay attention to win a game of tic-tac-toe because he would just bully the winner if he lost.

Unfortunately in America right now we have to major political parties (national level and many if not most states) that couldn't pour water out of a boot right now if you told them the directions are printed on the heel, and while the right wing has gone bat shit crazy, and the left wing looked at it and said, "You think Republicans are bat shit crazy? Hold my beer and watch this."

Expect things to get crazier.

Creep travels half the world to harass online teen gamer… and gets shot by her mom – cops

Dal90

Re: I thought of the child(ren)

>>"A .22 doesn't really have enough stopping power to deal with an intruder."

>It appears to have stopped the one this story was about.

Because he was shot in the neck.

Folks under attack aren't executing people with a gun shot to the head of an unexpecting (or unresisting) victim. They aren't aiming for the smallest part of the persons profile (the neck) except in the most unusual circumstances. They are firing with the sole intent of stopping the attacker from continuing to be a physical threat to the victim.

So for self defense you would like to have something with enough energy to it to hopefully incapacitate with a single shot to the center of mass (the biggest part of the body thus easiest target to hit) -- not a lucky shot piercing the neck or a skilled shot rattling around in the skull. A .22 long rifle can also be quite lethal if not treated promptly, but eventual lethality is not the same as immediately incapacitating someone and/or incapacitating someone with the fewest shots needed.

When I had woodchuck problems (they were subsiding my front lawn...my house sits on the edge of forests and fields) it always made me feel bad the only rifle I had was .22 long rifle that would drop them immediately and put them in shock -- but would invariably require the administration of a coup de grace to kill them. Wished I could've afforded even a .22 magnum that would have killed in a single shot.

Dal90

Re: Psycho creeps will always be with us.

>That comes down to the fuckwitts of America not being able to

>understand that arrest is not the same as being charged

Because in America, an warrantless arrest only takes place after the police have decided at least the first thing they will be charging you with.

You can be detained ("seized") for an investigation, or the safety of the officers or others. That might look like an arrest, with the person placed in hand cuffs and all that -- for a brief amount of time and, except for extenuating circumstances, kept at the scene until a decision is made to charge or release.

That may become protective custody, that may become an arrest, that may become take the handcuffs off and tell them to have a nice day.

Per the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1968 Terry decision,

"It is quite plain that the Fourth Amendment governs "seizures" of the person which do not eventuate in a trip to the station house and prosecution for crime-"arrests" in traditional terminology."

If you're arrested in the U.S. without a warrant the police have already reached the point they will be charging you a crime.

Comcast's mega-outage 'solution'... Have you tried turning your router off and on again?

Dal90

>I have dual WAN (ATT Fiber and TMobile LTE) failover

>for exactly this type of scenario.

1)

Charter had a fiber optic line cut in my town last week.

No problem, I can tether to my iPhone or use the corporate VzW hotspot that they provide specifically so I can do remote support if Charter is down...

Barely any voice signal strength, no data on VzW.

I'm guessing VzW was renting dark fiber capacity from Charter as I know from past tests their Network Layer was separate.

2)

Work has both Charter & Verizon fiber for redundant ISPs, confirmed that they use separate fiber over separate routes to our 2500 employee sized corporate campus.

Started having issues with traffic going to a handful of sites, but some of which were heavily hit by automated processes. Some tracerouting around showed the failures were going out Charter and had a CenturyLink (Level3) router in Boston in common...but the traceroutes also showed that both Charter AND Verizon were using the same Verizon infrastructure between their (separate) local offices and the same facility in Boston...just once it hit Boston the traffic over Charter was routed very CenturyLink for the trip to Atlanta, while Verizon looked like it kept it on it's own network.

I'm just glad I'm not on the network team that had to coordinate a Charter/Verizon/CenturyLink conference call :D 24 hours for us to diagnose and inform Charter (who was getting complaints to the of sporadic problems throughout our area from other customers but hadn't figured it out themselves), 48 more hours before Charter updated the ticket that CenturyLink acknowledged there was an issue on their router, another 24 hours for CenturyLink to fix it.

My conclusion: That the frigging internet works as well as often is impressive, because there is not as much true resiliency as most of think, hope, or fantasize there is. It would take a lot more project management, engineering, and architecture work than most companies will put into it.

Backpage.com cops to human trafficking, money laundering

Dal90

Article wasn't clear as other news stories.

He plea bargained state charges in Texas, Arizona, and California AND to federal charges.

5 year sentence from all four, to be served concurrently.

State prostitution and federal money laundering charges.

Law's changed, now cough up: Uncle Sam serves Microsoft fresh warrant for Irish emails

Dal90

It's not retroactive.

It's a new warrant, under a new law.

If they are quibbling about warrants, the was never a "case" that went to trial. So there is no violation of double jeopardy.

Crypt-NO-coins: US city bans mining funbux on its electrical power grid

Dal90

Re: market solution

#entropy

A dog DNA database? You must be barking

Dal90

I'm pretty sure for 50,000 pounds a year in damage, it's cheaper to pay off the claims than analyze DNA and store it.

(History lesson -- when dog licenses were first adopted in New England, the fees were used to pay off any damage by dogs to sheep if the offending dog was unknown. The towns' incentive to have good dog wardens was they got to keep any surplus funds.)

Uber: Ah yeah, we pay women drivers less than men. We can explain!

Dal90

> want true equity between the genders

This sounds very much like a fairness argument -- such as how it's not fair that veterans returning from World War II should have to compete for jobs against women who were doing those jobs during the war. So we'll have to fire those women so men will have a job, even if we have to pay the men more.

Equity is far more a values judgement, subject to the whims of society at the time, than the concept of equality.

FYI: That Hawaii missile alert was no UI blunder. Someone really thought the islands were toast

Dal90

Re: I may be weird, but...

>I would think it far better to risk false alerts

Problem 1 is you look like incompetent boobs and risk the classic "Cry Wolf" syndrome.

Problem 2 is if people actually take you seriously there are real world consequences.

RWCs is the reason Houston was NOT evacuated during Hurricane Harvey this past summer. They had a pretty good idea some place near Houston would get gobsmacked...but not exactly sure where.

Hurricane Harvey claimed about 80 lives in the Houston area.

Hurricane Rita had claimed 113 lives -- 107 of which were attributed directly to the chaos caused by the evacuation orders issued for that storm.

======

FWIW, Massachusetts has a world-class civil defense organization.

Separate systems for Test & Prod, takes two on-duty operators to initiate the process, and then one of the top 3 executives of the agency has to approve it, presumably with the job requirement one of the three is always available in a relatively developed part of the state so they can be reached easily.

(And hopefully they have the "break glass in case of emergency and rip open this envelope" with the backup authorization codes for when Bob & Joe are on vacation and Fred just died of a heart attack)

Point being it would take deliberate collusion and just not a normal confused cock-up to send a false alert.

America's drone owner database is baaaack! Just in time for Xmas

Dal90

Re: Not disputing that a national drone database is a good ideia

Firearms can be tracked.

It's just in the foresight of the preeminent civil rights organization that the NRA worked in the 1970s to prevent a single computerized database that would be irresistible candy to bureaucrats bent on fishing expeditions. Meanwhile the ACLU has to fight against warrantless searches of databases by administrations since Bush.

Ever notice how within a few days of the shooting the ATF has traced the gun from the manufacturer to the ultimate legal purchaser? It just takes actual footwork (or phone calls to real live, knowledgeable people) and has a real cost associated with it to follow the trail of actual, physical paperwork that is maintained from the factory to current owner.

Gun dealers have to maintain the records of who the sell to (and when they go out of business either transfer their records to another dealer or to the ATF). Private sellers -- taking advantage of the law that allows the sale of long guns between residents of the same state -- likewise are wise to maintain such records if nothing else to demonstrate they took the minimal effort to confirm the other person was a resident of the same state; less they themselves commit a felony which will result in the seller losing their rights to ever own another gun.

Voyager 1 fires thrusters last used in 1980 – and they worked!

Dal90

Re: it's already doing 17.46 km/hour

So there is a Mr. Byte?

IEEE 1541

bit = b

byte = B

So, tell us again how tech giants are more important than US govt...

Dal90

Re: Interesting stuff

You forgot #4:

4. Will the ads influence the enthusiasm of the voters to turn out to vote?

These ads may be simplistic, naked propaganda. And that is all they need to influence turn-out for those on the edge whether they'll bother to go down to the polls to vote.

The best thing about the last year online is it has shown the 30% or so who are right-wing are just a bunch of sheep like the left, and the 30% of left wingers are just as bat shit crazy.

Dark web souk AlphaBay outage: Users fear they've been scammed

Dal90

"Security Update"

Translation: Warrant has been served, nodes seized, tracking software being installed.

Tin foil or overly cynical?

Ride-snare: Lyft ruse helps cops cuff suspect in tech CEO murder case

Dal90

Re: Home invasion

The vast majority of "Home Invasions" are drug dealers ripping off drug dealers.

Strangers targeting random victim like "In Cold Blood" back in '59 or the Petit home invasion in Connecticut in 2007 remain very rare.

BA's 'global IT system failure' was due to 'power surge'

Dal90

Re: Cynical Me

Can not +1 this enough.

Unless you have a non-stop infrastructure designed to, and that you willing to, chaos monkey any component at any time...you do not have a non-stop infrastructure.

You have a very expensive wing and a prayer.

Reliability metrics probably shouldn't be expressed in terms like 99.999% uptime, but instead something like 99.9999% of transactions complete successfully without delay due to failover, and 99.99999% transactions complete without returning an explicit failure to the user because data integrity could not be guaranteed due to the failover.

Smart guns are a neat idea on paper. They'll never survive reality

Dal90

Re: Hmm....

>If gangbangers were murdering children, the NRA would tell us all about it.

Most gangbangers, by the definitions of liberals today, are children.

That statistic of one every 30 minutes no undoubtedly consists primarily of teen age gang bangers shooting each other, or hitting their neighbors while trying to shoot each other assuming the standard definition of children to be under 18.

I wouldn't bet on that definition anymore, coming from a state where the Governor would like everyone under the age of 21 to be treated as a juvenile offender, and we now define 25 year old as children on health insurance policies.

If you back out the extremely high rates of black on black shootings, and the elevated (but much lower) levels of shootings among hispanics -- both gang driven -- the U.S. has gun violence levels on par with Canada and Finland.

Start to dive into the white population so you also back out the higher rates of gun violence in Appalachia and other areas settled by descendants of poor Scots-Irish (from pre-revolutionary migrations, not the Irish migrations after the potato famine who went to industrial, urban areas) and the remainder of the U.S. would have gun violence levels on par with core European countries like Germany.

Dal90

Re: 'Smart guns' - an inherent failure

>. It might not fire when you want (possible flaw, yes)

And that makes all other arguments for "smart guns" invalid.

You can keep a gun clean, people of average mechanical ability can determine it is in good condition or if it needs to be fixed, how to fix it. Do not complicate a self-defense weapon with an electronic component that is not instantaneous, nor will ever be as reliable as simple mechanics of a pistol, and likely unrepairable in a few years to original condition as electronics used and/or the source code becomes unavailable. You are introducing an additional point of failure for no legitimate reason that can not be mitigated by other, superior controls.

There is no constitutional protection in the U.S. to have guns to shoot targets or to go hunting with.

There is only a constitutional right to bear arms to protect yourself (as an individual, and collectively) from harm. Infringing on this by making guns less likely to function when needed for self protection fundamentally undermines that right.

(No, I'm not a gun nut -- and my pistol is kept locked in a fingerprint-reader equipped vault except when I feel like doing a bit of target shooting. A vault which I also have a physical key to unlock should the reader fail which is fine by me because I do not anticipate a realistic need to use it for self-defense. It remains utterly unacceptable for any weapon that is intended for self-defense however to be encumbered by any additional risk of failure due to of these "smart gun" technologies.)

Google plots cop detection for auto autos

Dal90

Re: Prior Art?

> I think it involves a radio box that is illegal to use in a non-emergency vehicle

In the U.S. anyways it's normally the Opticom system which watches for a strobe light on a particular pattern.

That strobe used to be white, now it is normally infrared.

In some areas it will trigger a white strobe a top the traffic light to indicate the signal is under control of an approaching emergency vehicle.

A fully-built out system will prioritize fire apparatus over police cars (takes longer to stop and accelerate fire trucks), police cars using their emergency lights & siren over ambulances and police cars not using them (which may be using the Opticom ia situation that does not warrant use of sirens, but you do not want to sit unnecessarily at stop lights -- which now that the Opticoms looks for an infrared strobe you can do in "stealth" mode), and finally if there is no emergency service vehicle using the system it can grant control of the light to buses and snow plows; buses to speed along public transit, snow plows because they work best at a steady speed.

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