* Posts by Maelstorm

145 posts • joined 14 Jun 2015


Dead LAN's hand: IT staff 'locked out' of data center's core switch after the only bloke who could log into it dies

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I had configs and layout documentation stored on a hidden server on the network. I backed everything up to it. Then I archived it and encrypted it so it could be stored in plain site on several servers, on tape backup, and store the tape in a bank vault. The network didn't change much, so this was a viable option. But when the network went down, the other admins had no clue how stuff was configured because they weren't doing the backups like they were supposed to. Some managers were let go. I figured out what the problem was and reloaded the router with the config off my hidden server. When I left, I still don't think they found the server.

The backup server is a Raspberry Pi v1.0. It's in a small, non-descript case with a label that has the IP address and a message that reads "Critical network monitoring equipment. Do not disconnect."

Super Cali optimistic right-to-repair's negotious, even though Apple thought it was something quite atrocious

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Re: Next on the list

Actually, at least here in the United States, car manufacturers are required by law to publish all documentation about vehicles and information about specialty tools. That's why tool manufacturers such as Snap-On make a killing in the automotive repair industry.

Ransomware drops the Lillehammer on Norsk Hydro: Aluminium giant forced into manual mode after systems scrambled

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Industrial Network Security...or lack of....

Ever since Shodan came along, we will be seeing more of this in industrial settings. The big issue is the industrial controls that control material handling, processing, and manufacturing. These systems/networks MUST be air gapped (although that is not full proof as we have seen with the Stuxnet worm) to increase the difficulty level of performing a breach to very difficult to impossible for hackers, crackers, and state sponsored actors. Additionally, epoxy the USB ports and disconnect the optical drives so that nobody can slip something onto the network (not fool proof, but it does help).

Air gaped networks force an intruder to perform a up-front intrusion (they have to be on site). Physical security is another matter though.

Don't get the pitchforks yet, Apple devs: macOS third-party application clampdown probably not as bad as rumored

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I have always considered Apple Computer Inc. to be the Nazi's of the technology sector. It will be a boon to system security if only signed apps can be run since malware is not signed. However, I do not like the $99 entry fee for the pay to play model. This is why I stay clear of Apple. Microsoft does not have such restrictions, and Linux/Unix you can do whatever you want. Android recently introduced a new version of their development kit which is also $99, but is not as restrictive as Apple is as to what APIs you can use and such.

With that said, one must consider the target audience. Most people who buy Macs are not computer savvy. So changes like these will actually protect these users. However, it puts additional burdens on the developers because now more hoops have to be jumped through to install applications onto the system now.

Just my 2 cents.

We'll help you get your next fix... maybe, we'll think about it, says FTC: 'Right to repair' mulled

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Big Brother

If someone wants to repair their phone, tablet, or laptop, then by all means. The only one on that list that I will attempt is a laptop. The others are just way too small. This extends to all sorts of products.

Cars and trucks for instance. If the manufacturer could get away with it, they would weld the hood shut. Certain high-end European made vehicles have special access controls in the computer. If someone not authorized goes poking in there, it will alert someone at the manufacturer and you will get a CALL telling you to get out of it. Things like injector timing and such which are used by modders to retune vehicles.

Believe it or not, forklifts have an interesting problem too. The computer has a kill bit that gets set after something like 10,000 hours of use. After that, you have to replace the computer. But the computer is no longer available, so you have to buy a new forklift for US $1500-$4000 or more.

Is this the way the cookie wall crumbles? Dutch data watchdog says nee to take-it-or-leave-it consent

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Dump cookies after browser closes.

Just about every browser out there (so far I haven't seen one that doesn't) have settings that allow the user to delete cookies when the browser closes. So hit the big red X periodically to dump the cookies.

You have the right to remain on-prem, but you should really head for the cloud, UK plod told

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Cloud security? What can happen?

This is just me, but I have been against cloud storage for private, sensitive data. The only way that data in the cloud can be secured is to encrypt it BEFORE it is stored in the cloud. In some cases, you might be able to use a custom app to access the cloud, and perform the crypto on the fly. Also use obsure or random file/directory names so if someone does get access, they will not be able to determine anything.

Ah, this military GPS system looks shoddy but expensive. Shall we try to break it?

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That reminds me...

That reminds me of a particular song by the Village People...


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Re: "Electronics not destroyed by a sledgehammer"

@Sam 15

You sir, have made my day. The next round of beer is on me. LOL

Huawei 'to sue US' over federal kit block – report

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Re: Meanwhile watching carefully ....

Brexit is just awful policy, if you could sue governments for awful policy most countries would be bankrupt.

But brexit isn't just policy, is it? I ask because I seem to remember a referendum vote of the people was held and the people voted to exit the EU.

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Kasperksy anyone?

I seem to remember a similar lawsuit brought by Kaspersky. Wasn't that lawsuit dismissed? Here in America, you cannot sue someone for *NOT* buying or refusing to buy your product. So basically, the judge is going to tell them to pound sand.

OK, team, we've got the big demo tomorrow and we're feeling confident. Let's reboot the servers

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Back when I still worked for the local phone company, the machine had something called a secure feature upgrade. You had to enter in a code that represented a feature and a screen appeared that was filled with a bunch of hex digits. Then you have to read off that hex to someone at the vendor who then read back a response code that you had to input. If all was well, the feature would activate. The ability to block your caller ID for one call was an upgrade that cost USD $30,000 for each switch in the network...we had almost 1,000 switches in the state alone. And this was in 1995.

Where's Zero Cool when you need him? Loose chips sink ships: How hackers could wreck container vessels

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And in other news...

And still furious about the humiliating loss in the Falklands War, the President of Argentina orders his cyber warfare division of the military to tip the container ships which contain a shipment of underwear for the Queen of England.

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Hmmm... Ship Tipping

Ship Tipping...

Gives a whole new meaning to Cow Tipping.

Intel to finally scatter remaining ashes of Itanium to the wind in 2021: Final call for doomed server CPU line

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Do you know the real reason Itanium failed?

No? Then I will tell you: Cost.

To move to a completely new platform you not only need to replace the hardware, but you also have to replace the software. Software is key. When enterprise software costs a fortune, and then you have to chuck it to move to a new platform. Many businesses at the time did not see a business need to move from 32-bit to 64-bit at that time, and then include the added cost of new software. So many businesses stayed put. Then AMD came out with the 64-bit (x86 compatible) Opteron chip. So business that needed the 64-bit platform moved to that and ditched Intel.

Now why would a business want to spend more money to upgrade both hardware and software when they can just upgrade the hardware and the OS for much cheaper? Yeah, I can't think of a reason either.

Are you sure your disc drive has stopped rotating, or are you just ignoring the messages?

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Re: Gah. Users.

"I will leave a note that the microwave doesn't work. Someone else can make the effort to report it."

Unless you're like me who can fix the microwave. Besides, I was working on a microwave at the job and the boss comes in. He sees what I'm doing and want's to know why I didn't just call a ticket in. He also lectures me to leave it for qualified technicians.

That's when I tell him that I am a license and qualified technician. I showed him my licenses. He left me alone after that.

Oof, are you sure? Facing $9bn damages, Google asks Supreme Court to hear Java spat

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Far reaching repercussions...

This is not good.

Interoperability is at the heart of the technology industry. If APIs and interfaces can be copyrighted, then things such as Wine and other programs can be sued out of existence. Another one that comes to mind is MS-DOS vs. DR-DOS. And then what about UEFI? Let's not forget OpenOffice/LibreOffice's ability to read and write Microsoft Office documents.

The bottom line is that implementation of APIs and interfaces are copyrightable, but the APIs and interfaces themselves should not be.

Requests for info, gag orders and takedowns fired at GitHub users hit an all-time high last year

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There are only two reasons that I can see a takedown request being legitimate:

1. The source code is stolen.

2. The source code is an exploit.

Beyond that, there should be no reason to honor a takedown request. In fact, if a copyright claim is made, the project owner on GitHub can counter sue the plaintiff by saying that the code is public so they stole it and are trying to claim it as theirs. As for the gag order...why? Unless there is some secret criminal proceeding, there should be no civil request takedown notices that are gagged.

Tech sector meekly waves arms in another bid to get Oz to amend its crypto-busting laws

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ISP DNS Black Hole....

"movie studios can get courts to poison ISPs' DNS records in a regime expanded last year to sweep up Google, and the government's telecommunications data retention scheme happened against tech's objections."

Poison DNS records? DNS server software is specifically designed to NOT allow that to happen. You would have to manually go in and edit the zone mapping files. For most non-tech people, that will stop them. But for the tech crowd, such as the people who read this site, it is trivial to setup your own DNS server to bypass that. I have my own DNS server that I use to block advertising networks, but that's a topic for a different discussion.

Office 365 enjoys good old-fashioned Thursday wobble as email teeters over in Europe

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And this is why

And this is why the cloud sucks. Yes, it reduces IT costs across the board, but there are a number of flaws with it.

1. Increases the size of the line at the unemployment office with unemployed IT workers.

2. Your data is at the mercy of the cloud vendor.

3. If the cloud vendor has a security breach, unless encrypted, your data can be exposed.

3a. This can have major legal consequences depending on the nature of the data.

3b. Everyone's data will be at risk depending on the nature of the breach, extent, etc....

4. If the cloud vendor suffers an outage, then your data is inaccessible.

5. The cloud vendor can hold your data hostage if you fail to pay for services.

6. (Related to 4 and 5) If your data is inaccessible, then your business may suffer depending on what the data is and what it is used for.

7. Data in the cloud is not private unless encrypted, and can be accessed by third parties without your knowledge (spies, government agents, etc....)

I am amazed at the speed to which people are moving their data to the cloud. The cloud was never a good idea because it introduces a single point of failure for everyone using it, and it exposes your data to inspection by third parties without your knowledge. And in case you don't know, here in the U.S.A, we have the CLOUD Act. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Corp._v._United_States I don't trust the cloud, and for good reason.

Wow, fancy that. Web ad giant Google to block ad-blockers in Chrome. For safety, apparently

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The best way to handle this is to run your own DNS server and black-hole the ad network domains. That's what I did. Sites that complain can go piss off. So far, none have because the content doesn't even get loaded.

Core blimey... When is an AMD CPU core not a CPU core? It's now up to a jury of 12 to decide

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This lawsuit is about definitions.

This lawsuit is about definitions, nothing more, nothing less. I actually have a FX-8350 chip in my main workstation computer. Runs just fine for what I use it for. But I do understand the false advertising claim though.

To be technical, in my mind, I consider a core as having it's own instruction/data cache/fetch circuitry, instruction decoder, branch predictor, register file, ALU, register forwarding unit, and FPU unit. This dates back to the era when 80486DX machines were common which was the first x86 CPU to have both integer and floating point units on the same die.

So if some of those resources are shared, I can see how that can be an issue. But my philosophy is if it works, then I'm not going to complain. Most of my work is coding anyways which can be done on a 8088 machine.

Cyber-insurance shock: Zurich refuses to foot NotPetya ransomware clean-up bill – and claims it's 'an act of war'

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Oh yeah

An act of war? Really? So far all we know it was Russian hackers. They were probably state sponsored, but the insurance company is going to have to prove that in court. I agree with Big AI 23, they are trying to see what they can get away with. That and they probably want to hold out on the payment for as long as possible to get all the interest they can from the banks.

Steamer closets, flying cars, robot boxers, smart-mock-cock ban hypocrisy – yes, it's the worst of CES this year

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Robot on robot crime is now a thing...

There is one other thing that isn't showing that the article didn't mention because in other news, a robot that was supposed to be shown at CES suffered major damage when it was run over by a Tesla in autopilot mode. Granted, it is suspected that this was a publicity stunt. But still, robot on robot crime? We don't have laws for that here in the U.S.A (Surprise!). You can read about it here:


Wanted – have you seen this MAC address: f8:e0:79:af:57:eb? German cops appeal for logs in bomb probe

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Technical Details

The MAC address (Media Access Control) is the hardware address that is in the ethernet frame header at layer 2. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) binds the MAC address to an IP address that we all know and love. MAC addresses are hardware specific and can be changed. If the perpetrator is reading this, then they have either changed their MAC address or disposed of the device.

In case you are wondering, the first three octets describes the manufacturer.

Linus Torvalds opts for the scream test: Linux kernel syscall tweaked to shut data-leak hole – anyone upset, yell now

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The manual page for mincore for FreeBSD just shows if a page is allocated and if it has been modified by the calling process or otherwise. I've never really found a use for it as paging is handled by the operating system. What I have used those is madvise, mlock, munlock, mmap, and munmap when I wrote a pooled memory manager some years ago.

Perhaps some libraries use it.

FreeBSD Manual: mincore

The D in SystemD stands for Dammmit... Security holes found in much-adored Linux toolkit

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I use FreeBSD, and for good reason.

SystemD is a total piece of shit. In fact, Linus was so fed up with the antics of one of the developers that he banned the guy from contributing to the Linux Kernel. This is why I use FreeBSD for my servers. Fast, reliable, and shit free.

SystemD violates the Unix way of doing things: Have one tool to do one thing and do it well.

This is why we have tools like chmod, chown, chgrp, ls, mv, cp, rm, mkdir, rmdir, cd, etc... All those tools do primarily ONE thing, and they do it well. The login tool handles user logins. Cron handles timed start of tasks (think Task Manager in Windows). SystemD just gobbles up all the startup tools for the sake of a faster, parallel boot strategy. Unix systems do not restart every 5 minutes, so it's a useless endeavor for a non-problem...aka a waste of time.

It'll soon be even more illegal to fly drones near UK airports

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And here in the good ole U.S.A., we have a regulation issued by the FAA that drones must be registered, a fee paid, and the drone must have an ID number on it. This rule was established in 2015. However, in 2017, the rule was amended so that this only applies to drones that fly for commercial use. Drones that fly for fun do not need to be registered.

Er, we have 670 staff to feed now: UK's ICO fines 100 firms that failed to pay data protection fee

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If this ICO is supposed to be a regulatory body, then why isn't it being funded by the government? Here in the U.S., a regulatory body is funded from the government, and its funding is budgeted. There are taxes (sales tax, income tax) and fees, but nothing like the structure of the ICO in the U.K.

More nodding dogs green-light terrible UK.gov pr0n age verification plans

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Big Brother

This will not work.

This will not work, and here's why. The law only applies to sites in the UK. What about U.S. sites like pornhub and xnxx? Any enterprising individual who knows anything about how the internet actually works can just switch their DNS servers to something in the US and bypass any blocks. You can also contact the IP address directly without going through DNS. So DNS based blocks won't work. You will have to have something like the Great Firewall of China to actually block it, and even that is problematic because many porn sites now use HTTPS which is encrypted, so deep packet inspection at the ISP won't work either.

So yeah, this is very doable, very feasible, and it will work well. So you don't believe my smiling face? I don't believe it either.

Staff sacked after security sees 'suspect surfer' script of shame

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How stupid can people be? Very, apparently...

Seriously people, here in the US, the employer is providing you with a PC and a network connection on their dime, and they expect you to do work on their behalf while on the clock. Not sit there and flap to porn all day. They will usually tell you that they are watching.

There was an incident back in the 1990's at my old employer which caused a bit of a ruckus. What happened was a group of technicians was watching porn on one computer, creating a hostile work environment. One employee told a supervisor and nothing happened. The they told that supervisor's boss and nothing happened. Finally, that employee told the boss's boss's boss and something finally happened. An investigation ensued and twelve people were sacked, and several others were suspended. After that, the entire company got a mandatory course in how to avoid sexual harassment in the workplace.

Seriously, how stupid can people be? Apparently very stupid.

Uncle Sam fingers two Chinese men for hacking tech, aerospace, defense biz on behalf of Beijing

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One sure fire solution to cyber security is to air-gap the networks. If you have to be physically present in the building to access it, then that makes it so much harder for someone to break into a network. Furthermore, these corporate idiots should be encrypting their data before sending it to the cloud. If you store it in plaintext, then you are just asking for it to be stolen.

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In my experience management has low to no interest because it costs and that may lower executive bonuses.

Well, there has been talk at the federal level to institute civil and criminal penalties for executives who fail in data protection. You cannot regulate stupid, but you can put them under the jail for it. Now I'll be taking my jacket and I know my way to the door.

You wait for one IT giant to show up with its sales figures, then two come at once: Red Hat, Oracle

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Screw Oracle...

Big Red and Larry can go F themselves after the lawsuit against Google for Java on android. On top of that, they are screwing Java developers with new licensing terms. I will not shed a tear for Larry and Co.

That and what they did to people with Sun hardware (you are not allowed to download Solaris unless you have a support contract). Probably why places like eBay is flooded with Sun hardware.

Poor people should get slower internet speeds, American ISPs tell FCC

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Here's the thing...

Here's the thing, I used to work for a major telephone company in the USA. I worked there for many years. Basically, under heavy regulation, business wireline telephone service subsidized residential service, generally speaking. However, everyone paid a fee called universal lifeline. What that is, it's a subsidy that allows the phone company to provide basic service to people who cannot afford it or are on low income...such as my 89 year old grandmother who just gets Social Security.

This system has worked for many many years. So I can see this happening with internet access. I am old enough to remember, and I'm sure many here are as well, during the 1990's dialup is all we had. If you had a 9600pbs modem in 1991, you were smoking. 14,400 or 28,800 in 1995 or so, and the 56k modems in the late 1990's. If you were willing to shell out some money, you could get bonded ISDN service for a whopping 128k speed, metered of course. If you wanted faster, then you could get multiple ISDN lines, or pop for a T1 for $995.00/month for 1.536 megabit service. But in the late 1990's, ADSL came out and it started a feeding frenzy that continues to this day with various implementations and advancements. For 10 years through the 2000's, I had 6 mbit ADSL and it was fine for me. Cable modems from the cable company came out in late 1996 or early 1997. For a long time, my mom had 384k internet, and that was considered broadband.

So, you will understand when I say that anything faster than dialup I consider broadband. The 10/1 minimum for people who cannot afford it otherwise is actually a good idea. The people who can't afford it otherwise probably don't have computers that can handle the applications that use the high bandwidth network anyways. I'm talking about streaming video, games, and other applications. General web browsing is fine.

In this day and age, I call it high speed network access. A 10 mbps datalink was a standard LAN speed back in the day, and it will suffice for most things, especially for someone who has nothing at all. With the things that I do, I can bury a 100 mbps network connection. So I can see ISPs such as AT&T, Verizon, and Qwest charging a little extra to subsidize those who cannot afford internet access, and still turn a profit.

No taxpayer dollars needed.

It worked for regular POTS phone service, and I see no reason why it wouldn't work for internet access. Companies are for making money, and asking for taxpayers to help foot the bill is just being plain greedy.

Disclaimer: I own sock in one of more of the companies that have been mentioned.

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Re: Municipal cable companies

About 22-24 years ago, a cable company known as Century Communication Corp replaced ALL the cable in my town with fiber optics and served our TV service from that. Then they got bought out by AT&T broadband, which was eventually sold to Comcast...affectionately known as Comcrap or Crapcast. Since the technology was still relatively new, there were problems with the fiber optic terminals that converted the fiber signal to the 75 ohm coax cable. I don't know what they spent to wrap the town in fiber, but I know it was a pretty penny to do so.

For fax sake: NHS to be banned from buying archaic copy-flingers

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Re: Is internet as reliable as legacy 'phone system?

"My experience is that POTS outages are rare, but internet outages are common.

Does anybody have any (non-anecdotal) data about outages?"

I used to work for AT&T in wireline service (aka POTS). The outages causes by hardware failure in telephone switching equipment is rare, and usually only affects a small number of customers (usually people within a block of ports or something like that). The really big outages were caused by drunk drivers taking down a pole or some construction crew with a backhoe ripping a cable out of the ground.

One memorable event took place in the early 2000's where someone was drilling sideways under US101 here in California, USA in Marin County. They snagged the fiber optic cable with the auger and took down a whole bunch of things. The highway patrol closed the freeway so repair crews could jackhammer the pavement to get at the cable to fix it.

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The last time that I checked...

The last time that I checked, you cannot hack a fax machine and a filing cabinet remotely.

Medical records? "Secure" email? Single point of failure?

What can possibly go wrong?

If you ever felt like you needed to carry 4TB of data around, Toshiba's got you covered

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Since nobody has said it yet...

Since nobody has said it yet, then I will...

That's a lot of space for a pr0n collection.

On a more serious note, I would like to say that any sensitive data on a portable device must be encrypted so that our government overlords...err law enforcement...can't access our deepest and darkest secrets.

Wow, what a lovely early Christmas present for Australians: A crypto-busting super-snoop law passes just in time

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At least our Congress is intelligent enough to realize that you cannot legislate science.

Funnily enough, China fuming, senator cheering after Huawei CFO cuffed by Canadian cops at Uncle Sam's request

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"At the request of the US side, the Canadian side arrested a Chinese citizen not violating any American or Canadian law. The Chinese side firmly opposes and strongly protests over such kind of actions which seriously harmed the human rights of the victim,"

I'm sorry, for China to claim that this is a violation of her human rights is just laughable...especially when you look at China's human rights violations over their history. Pot, meet Kettle.

If the United States wasn't so damn arrogant and sticking their nose where it doesn't belong all the time, then these other countries wouldn't be so keen on acquiring weapons to defend themselves against us. It's a game of control. Look at North Korea. The only reason why they want nuclear weapons is to counter the United States. So take a look: The axis of evil is Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, North Korea, Cuba, and Libya. Two of those were invaded. Syria in in a civil war, and Libya disposed of their dictator. So looking at that, I can see why Kim Jong Un want's nuclear weapons. I would be nervous too.

Giraffe hacks printers worldwide to promote God-awful YouTuber. Did we read that one right?

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One must always question the intelligence of the people who watch YouTube.

High Court agrees to hear full legal challenge of Blighty's Snooper's Charter

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Big Brother

At least in the UK...

At least in the UK, you can challenge mass surveillance. Here in the United States of America, fat chance. People have tried and have had their cases dismissed because of 'State Secrets Privilege' which caused necessary evidence to be withheld in court. There have been criminal convictions where the evidence used in the prosecution was withheld from the defense because it was 'classified,' which is a blatant violation of The Constitution. But of course, any dissident voices are routinely silenced so the public at large doesn't know what is going on.


3ve Offline: Countless Windows PCs using 1.7m IP addresses hacked to 'view' up to 12 billion adverts a day

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In Soviet Russia, you don't view and click on the ads, the ads view and click on you.

Washington Post offers invalid cookie consent under EU rules – ICO

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The EU vs US?

The problem here is that you have an EU entity trying to enforce its laws on a US company. The quote "Given that US law doesn't really address consent for cookies and the FTC is kind of wishy washy on it, the MoU would be about as much use as a chocolate teapot in this case." pretty much sums it up in this case. A case could be made for reputation, but they have to pay the bills somehow. Besides, EU law does not apply inside the US just because the EU says so, especially if laws conflict. This was more or less resolved in previous cases (Yahoo!, France). The same thing applies the opposite way as well (Well, it should). Although nobody could blame you for thinking otherwise with recent developments like the CLOUD act here in the US where US Law Enforcement can force a company to turn over data which is stored on foreign soil (Microsoft, Ireland), which in my opinion, is a violation of the foreign nation's sovereignty. Time for me to grab my jacket and hit the door.

One other thing... From a technical perspective, you *MUST* have cookies if you log into the site. As a developer, HTTP/HTTPS is a stateless protocol. So you have to have cookies to maintain user state on the server. So basically, if you don't agree to having cookies set on your browser, then you are not going to be logging into a website. That's the short and long of it from a technical aspect. PHP doesn't really give you any other option, unless you handle the session state yourself, but you will still need to have cookies to keep track of it.

We asked the US military for its 'do not buy' list of Russian, Chinese gear. Surprise: It doesn't exist

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There is...or used to be...

There is or was a federal law on the books that goes something like this: "Products purchased for government user must be bought from US companies." or something to that effect. So a list like this is probably classified, which means el Reg can FOIA it till they are blue in the face and they response will always be "We can neither confirm nor deny that any such list exists."

Frankly, I'm quite surprised they didn't outright ignore your request.

'Pure technical contributions aren’t enough'.... Intel commits to code of conduct for open-source projects

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Respect is given where earned

I am from the school of thought that respect is earned. In general, I respect people until I have a reason not too. If this offends someone, then they can go kiss my hairy white ass. The whole feminism and SJW special snowflake thought police leaves a bad taste in people's mouth. Before it was about bullying...now it's against people who hurt other people's feelings.

Well, I say get used to it. That's life. There are always going to be assholes out there. In places like California, we are growing people who cannot function unless they are wrapped up in bubble wrap. Any slight to their fragile egos and they start crying "Whaaah. You hurt my feelings. I want my safe spot." I'm sorry, but in this world there is no safe spot, which means that these people will be facing a very harsh reality.

The mysterious life of Luc Esape, bug fixer extraordinaire. His big secret? He's not human

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But can it fix coding bugs that cause security holes?


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