Re: double standards?
What about GM? Didn't they have problems with ignition switches, which resulted in many fatal accidents? Y'know, where people actually died (at least 124). According to Wikipedia they they coughed up $900m to Uncle Sam and about $600m compensation. So about $1.5bn total. But VW are being pushed for 10 times that amount, just for fiddling with the software? Nobody has died (directly) because of this. And it wasn't just VW. Daimler, Opel (yes, GM again), Ford, and others were also found to have "creative" software on their Diesel cars and vans.
So how to explain the difference? Could it be because VW is not American?
If they want to go after anyone, it should be the German Federal Vehicle Regulator (Kraftfahrtbundesamt - KBA). They just ignored it or let the manufacturers design the emissions tests themselves. Which shows how much clout the car lobby has in Germany - about as much as the NRA in the US.