A minor irritance
It's Hubble's Law and the Hubbble Constant - not "the Hubble's Constant".
887 posts • joined 12 Apr 2012
It's Hubble's Law and the Hubbble Constant - not "the Hubble's Constant".
A good question.
If we regard the Universe as a closed system, and the space-time within it is expanding, then where is the additional space-time coming from?
If only one of space or time were expanding, and the other was contracting, then we might have a way to keep the total amount of space-time within the Universe constant.
Time appears to 'expand' from its boundary, or 'end', whereas space seems to expand throughout its volume. In view of this, it seems to me that solutions that have space contracting or shrinking are going to be easier to deal with than solutions that have time contracting/shrinking.
"...is too small to realistically contain the necessary logic and all the data to insert a viable backdoor into a software stack."
I'd estimate that the chip shown in the first reg article on this story:
is roughly 1mm x 3mm, or a little under, so between 2.5-3 mm2.
But in this reg article:
it is stated that "one [A5] CPU core, minus all the extras, [but] with 4KB of instruction cache, and 4KB of data cache, comes in at 0.28 mm2 of die area"
It seems to me then, that the chip shown by Bloomberg is not too small for the necessary logic and data.
Children start becoming sexually aware around the age of 10 and once that awareness has occurred, and the accompanying urges have started, there's no way of stopping it.
The real problem here is that parents can't cope with, and are in denial of, that little aspect of reality.
Rather than solving a problem, Age Verification just helps brush it further under the carpet.
@LDS: I think you're trying to read more into the GPL than is actually there.
"Most licenses I've seen..."
The GPL licenses (2 & 3) are specific and not open to modification: all of the GPL licenses that you've seen will be identical (within the type: 2 or 3). There's no scope for 'Most licenses I've seen...' in the context of the GPL Licenses.
"GPL forces you to give back all of your code if you ever use something GPLed in it"
The GPL only requires you release 'your' code if you are distributing modified GPL'd code; it does not require you to do anything at all if you just use GPL'd software; the organisations that are being targeted by MongoDB are not distributing modified GPL'd software; they're just using GPL'd software to distribute their own data.
"I believe the "internal use" exception..."
There is no "internal use" exception in the GPL because there are no usage restrictions in the GPL, other than from the penalties resulting from the distribution of modified code without the accompanying source code modifications.
"So I fully understand MongoDB and others..."
I agree with Paul Berg's thinking on this: "Open source and libre software doesn't require you to give back to the community, it allows you to do so unimpeded. The rationale for these new licenses seems to me to be something different."
And what that different thing seems to be, at least to me, is that after using the free/open source model to gain market-share and dependence they've decided that now that people are making money [from their s/w] they want some of it.
Nope - the Shuttle could only get to LEO (Low Earth Orbit) whereas at its closest approach to Earth (perigee) Chandra is a little over 14,000 km away.
Furthermore, when Chandra, or any object in orbit, is at perigee it is also traveling at its fastest, so as well as not being able to reach Chandra, the Shuttle wouldn't have the delta-V to be able to accelerate to match velocities with it and then decelerate to return to Earth.
"...cross l[a]nguage, cross platform..."
What we really need are calm languages & platforms.
It's more of a proposed explanation than an assumption, but I think there are better explanations.
Penitentes are formed by ablative erosion so the peak of the penitente is indicative of an older and higher surface level - the penitentes are not built up from the original surface but are what's left.after the surrounding material has been removed (by the aforesaid erosion). If we have 15m high penitentes then we need to know where that 15m of eroded material came from and where it subsequently went.
More likely, imo, is that the 'roughness' is due to either compression fractures, similar to what we see in the Arctic ice sheets, or the presence of cryovolcanic 'spines', similar in mechanism to those we see being erupted from lava domes. Neither of these explanations require the now missing eroded material.
"There is a lot of down votes here... Care to enlighten?"
There's no news, just propaganda. The up-votes come from people who like and support the propaganda because it supports their biases. The down-votes come from people who are annoyed by the propaganda and its supporters because it and they disagree with their own biases.
I agree; there's something wrong about this affair.
It seems to me that Bloomberg has probably uncovered something but what they have uncovered is not what they [Bloomberg] think it is.
"the allegation of chips and Chinese snoopers is set to intensify the already bad-tempered relations between the Chinese and US administrations."
Indeed, and it appears to be the only certainty in this affair; nothing else about it adds up.
I find these 'possibility' type theories both annoying and misleading and agree with Dr. Syntax that the main motivation for them is to get something published.
Everything in the Solar System was made from the same small portion of a much larger molecular cloud nova remnant and this would have been fairly homogeneous until the Sun and planets were well on their way to formation, for without the Sun and planetisimals there would have been nothing to cause differentiation, to separate the different materials in the cloud.
Water is a good example of this: many people now believe that Earth originally had no water at all and that it was all delivered by comets. The reality is that whilst Earth's oceans account for 96.5% of all the surface/near surface water, there's evidence that somewhere between 1.5-11 times this amount exists in the Earth's mantle, hundreds of miles deep, and which wouldn't have got there via comets.
Using fuzzy logic to select landing sites doesn't make a lot of sense to me, for two reasons. Firstly, you don't need fuzzy logic to establish the gradient of a patch of terrain (or, for that matter, its roughness i.e. covered in boulders) - very simple algorithms can do this. And secondly, probes are landed where there is something of interest to be investigated, not because its easy to land at that location; choosing a landing site just based upon the relative ease of landing is pointless if there's nothing interesting there, or at least within a reasonable travel range, to be investigated; you don't want to run the risk of a problem developing, such as part of the probe wearing out or getting damaged, before it can start doing its work.
I was wondering about the 300 lighting strike equivalent but a quick bit of searching revealed that an average -ve lightning stroke delivers ~500MJ of energy (+ve bolts are more intense but less common ~5%). TNT (as a rough yardstick) yields a little over 4MJ / kg, so it would seem that ~125kg of TNT (a fairly small bomb) ~= 1 average bolt of lighting.
If we use Pete 2's lowest number for the total weight of bombs dropped, 1 Mt, and multiply it by 2000 (for US tons, to get a lower bound) we get get 2 Glb. Divide this by 2.2 to get 9.09e8 kg.
Tot energy = 9.09e8 * 4e6 = 3.6e^14 J
Divide this by 5e8 to give equivalent number of lightning bolts = 7.2e4 = 720,000.
If we go with 6 bolts per minute then we have 720,000 / 6 = 120,000 minutes = 2,000 hours = 83.3 days.
But note that if that figure of 6 bolts per min is for the whole of Europe then we really need the average rate just for Germany, which must be considerably lower.
Corrections welcome for any errors in the maths.
Of course, another way of looking at it is to remember that bombs did far more damage during the war than lightning ever did.
"...having a man walk on the moon and return safely - with 1960's technology."
There was nothing safe about the Apollo missions or the 1960's technology they relied upon: it caused the death of three astronauts and nearly killed another three. Considering the low number of missions actually flown, its safety record can only be regarded as poor.
It wasn't just because of the cost that Saturn was retired, it was also because the Saturn launch stack was, to use computing jargon, an emergency hack, the sole purpose of which was to boost the US ego by beating the USSR in what history has shown to have been a totally pointless race - pointless because, if there had been some point to it, other than simply beating the USSR, they'd still be there.
Science was always secondary to winning the 'race': whilst the Apollo astronauts were very smart people, and did do some good science while they were there, only one of them was actually a scientist and once Apollo 11 had landed on the Moon and returned, NASA struggled to get financing from the US gov for further science based missions.
"employing a minimum wage staffer to click boxes all day..."
As a workaround, couldn't this have been done rather more quickly and efficiently by batches of simple SQL UPDATE queries?
I can think of many good use-cases for commercial/industrial IoT and if I were to be designing one of them I'd be thinking of 'pull' only inward comms i.e. the end device would initiate all comms and wouldn't allow any inward connections or remote logins at all. This wouldn't solve all of the problems but would remove some of them.
"Surely the Prince of Edinburgh wouldn't want to give his city back to the Scots?"
There isn't a title in the peerage named 'Prince of Edinburgh': you're probably thinking of the 'Duke of Edinburgh'. This title hasn't been enduring because it has mostly been bestowed upon people who are in line to the throne or whose descendants are in line to the throne: if the holder, or their descendants become the monarch then the title merges with the crown and ceases to exist. Thus, the title had to be (re) created, for a third time, before it could be bestowed upon Phillip, who is only the fourth person to hold the title.
"every human computer interaction is AI-powered."
I was thinking that 42 PCIe lanes was a bit on the low side these days but I notice that the Xeon Platinum 8180 you used for comparison only has 48. Epyc has 128.
Although slightly more modern aircraft were the norm - Britannias, Comets, VC-10s etc, I'd occasionally still see DC-3s flying overhead, often on their way in to Stansted, in the early sixties.
One memory, that is still vivid, is of lying in bed at night and listening to them slowly drone past, and seeming to take an age to do so - it was a lot quieter then, due to much less road traffic, both in general, of course, but especially overnight, and there was no double-glazing then either, so you'd hear them from a lot further away as they approached where I was, and then for a similar length of time as they passed overhead and carried on their way. I always wondered where they'd come from, where they were going and what the people on board were doing as I lay there in my bed - to the very young me it was all part of the wonder of the world, and somehow, just a little bit comforting.
On a different note, with 20,519 flights totalling 49,687 flying hours we seem to be looking at an average flight time of ~2.5 hours, which seems low for a long-haul aircraft.
"Preparing for it now is like a caveman trying to build an ocean liner"
How do you learn how to build ocean liners?
Ironically, there are no ocean liners these days, just cruise ships; different role entirely.
"...there are people pushing Brexit that basically want a broken country..."
On the one hand I think that the people who voted for Brexit did so because of a delusional belief that the many problems the UK faces were caused by other countries and not by ourselves. This view was enthusiastically promoted by David Cameron's government throughout his time as PM because it was pretty effective at diverting criticism away from the Tories. As we know though, it resulted in him being hoist with his own petard.
But on the other hand, I don't think the UK will be broken badly enough to force Brexiters to reappraise their delusions; they'll just carry on blaming the EU.
I fear that things must get a lot worse before they can start getting better; we really do seem to be in a 'you can't get there from here' position. Quite frankly, I'm just glad I'm not young anymore, as it won't affect me very much, and I'm glad I grew up when I did and not now, but I'm worried for the young people who will have to deal with the future.
All your PublicKeyCredential and fingerprint are belong to us.
"...our feline saviours..."
All your solar observatory are belong to us.
"This is just silly."
Sadly, I think it's more serious than just silly; it's neurotic, because they're looking for offense where none was intended and because they believe that a word should only mean what they think it should mean - a sort of neurotic pedantry.
Ultimately, words are just words; it's what people do that may be acceptable or, in the case of slavery, unacceptable.
What I find worrying about things like this is that decisions are being made on the basis of neurosis instead of rationality.
But would the EU be able to accept that data if they considered it to have been obtained illegally by their standards?
Oh great! I can't think of a more worthwhile endeavour. The world really needs this.
It would appear not - there is a 'frequency dispersion' in the signals that indicates that they are far away.
This dispersion is where the higher frequency portions of a signal arrive before the lower-frequency portions due to the signal passing through a medium, related to the way that 'white' light is split in to separate colours by a glass prism. In this case though, instead of 'light' waves and glass, we've got 'radio' waves and ionized inter-stellar & inter-galactic medium.
@LenG: Very good point re the difference between the repeating bursts from FRB 121102 and, so it would seem, the single bursts from all of the other FRBs.
FRBs seem to be very distant, generally considered to be in the order of billions of light years away, which makes the energy released from a single FRB considerable, raising the question of where that energy is coming from, and especially so in the case of FRB 121102's repeated bursts.
I can't see FRBs being anything to do with extraterrestrial technology though - such tech would have to be very advanced, to be able to handle the energies, but would also seem to be very inefficient, because we're detecting it - and no, they wouldn't have been focused signals sent intentionally to us because we weren't here billions of years ago.
"Intensive use of GPS depletes a battery rapidly on any platform."
This is really just a phone problem: based on experience with my ancient Mk1 Garmin etrex, I suspect that much of the power drain is due to downloading maps, LED colour displays and having to run a JVM-based system. Users of modern etrex models report up to 43 hours continuous use when power-saving is employed. Runs on a couple of easily replaceable AA batteries; carrying a few pairs of spares isn't much of an issue.
GPS on the phone does have it's place though - in the city. Pure GPS is poor in cities because the buildings block much of the sky, and especially, the horizons, which give you better accuracy (if you can only see a few GPS sats more or less directly above you, you won't get very good triangulation). Here though, the phone can use cell localisation techniques.
From the article: "...IPv6 to replace the truly ancient OSI protocol stack..."
Umm... although IPv6 is 'newer' than the OSI stack it is just part of the Internet Protocol Suite, which actually predates the OSI stack: if they're moving from a 'truly ancient' stack then it's to something even older.
"Flying in a straight line is rather difficult"
Assuming no intrinsic asymmetry in the flying structure, or propulsion system, the only problem with flying in a straight line is accounting for X-winds & turbulence..
The speed at which signals travel between different regions of biological brains is really quite slow, somewhere in the order of 100-200 mph iirc, and this means that the inter-region travel times can be lower in a smaller brain than they could be in a larger brain: the effect is that a smaller brain can be thought of as having the potential to operate at a higher frequency than a larger brain. If we compare the size of regions in the human brain - say a couple of inches - with the size of the entire fruit fly brain - apparently the size of a poppy seed - we can see that the relative inter-region travel times for a fruit fly will be several orders of magnitude lower than those for a human.
At the same time, being smaller makes the brain less complex and capable so the 'problems' it must solve need to be simplified, essentially by reducing the amount of data that needs to be considered - while it's flying along it won't also be wondering if Ralph really meant what he said last night, whether Clapton exists, or getting distracted by the scenery.
As a consequence, things that happen at what we regard as a 'normal' rate/speed appear to happen in slow motion from the fruit flies' point of view - what seems swift to you seems snail-like to the fly.
Just curious: who will own the copyright on the generated code?
The problem I have with the idea that eruptions can be initiated by antipodal shock is that it doesn't account for the presence of eruptable lava at that antipodal point: whilst the shock might very well create new faults, which might make it easier for any existing eruptable lava to reach the surface and erupt, it won't create that eruptable lava - it would already have to be there.
A couple of things seem to be misrepresented in the article though, seemingly to sex it up a little bit:
"The scale of this extinction was so incredible that scientists have often wondered what made the Siberian Flood Basalts so much more deadly than other similar eruptions".
Scientists quite probably did wonder about the scale of the extinction, but only until they discovered the scale, both in size and duration, of the Siberian Traps eruption, then it pretty much did make sense.
"But after the volcano exploded..."
This suggests a localised Plinian type of eruption, ending with a single, or short sequence of paroxysmal explosions, rather like Krakatau or Mt St. Helens, and which are associated with plate-boundaries and subduction zones, whereas it seems pretty certain that the Siberian Traps eruption(s) were of long duration, effusive and non-localised. This is not to say that there wouldn't have been any 'explosions' but they would have been relatively small and pretty insignificant in the overall scale of the Siberian Traps eruption.
All credit to Debian for actually reading the fine print but this isn't an open-source issue: the problem is that the clause was unenforceable:
"You will not, and will not allow any third party to … publish or provide any Software benchmark or comparison test results."
This actually means that anyone who distributes the updated microcode can only do so if they are in a position to enforce this condition upon their users, or indeed anyone else - the "third parties" - who download the update from their repositories. Clearly, neither Debian, nor any of the other distros that waived it through, have the ability or authority to enforce this condition and so can't comply with it.
If you need to process a batch of images you could try the --deskew function in imagemagick.
It's interesting that the package only appears to need 594 pins.
I'm guessing that it would need to provide a similar number of data lines to comparable amd64 chips to really be a viable alternative, so I wonder if the reduced pin count reflects lower or more easily managed power requirements.
"...dump the first plastic on the Moon."
You get a lot of UV on the surface of the Moon, so a lot of the plastic will break down relatively quickly.
"Whenever I see 'reach[ed] out' I always..."
...wonder where this fixation for quoting The Four Tops has come from.
"efforts to make the conference less boring"
Says it all really: politicians regard the discussion of politics as boring.
The main thrust of the article - that the "building blocks for life" are fairly common throughout the galaxy - seems straightforward enough, but all the talk about white dwarf stars seems out of place.
A white dwarf star is a stellar remnant - it's what's left after a main sequence star has gone through its red giant phase, so if there had been life around the progenitor star i.e. before the red giant phase, it would either have had to leave or get fried.
Once the red giant has finally used all of its remaining fuel it will collapse to form a white dwarf, about the size of Earth but with a mass comparable to the Sun. It'll have no internal source of energy now though, and only radiate the thermal energy gained from its collapse, so once it has formed it will inexorably start to cool down and this is a problem for the subsequent development of new life because the habitable zone will change relatively quickly, in the order of a few billion years, so if life did develop it might not have very long to get used to it.
In addition, although white dwarf stars can start out to be very hot > 100,000K, their small size means that any habitable zone would have to be relatively close to the star, far closer than Earth, and quite likely to be close enough to be tidally locked.
Then there's the issue of where these closely orbiting planets have come from, following the red giant phase that would have entirely engulfed any existing planets in those regions.
I'm not saying that any of this can't happen, but white dwarf star systems seem an unlikely sort of place to look for life.
"Unless it's all a double bluff?"
I suspect it's all propaganda.
I can't see how this could be regarded as a low-energy computer either.
Capturing 97% of the 'wasted' heat for possible re-use doesn't make it low-energy - the energy still has to be used.
I think the price is "read-intensive".
QLC 3D NAND just doesn't have the durability for lots of writes, at least in its current forms, so whilst it seems suitable for archival purposes I can't see it really having much use in more general server and workstation workloads.
In view of the relatively lower cost of MLC, perhaps extreme redundancy - let's say up to 10x over-provisioning - might bring the write endurance for an SSD device up to more acceptable levels but NAND, especially MLC types, rely heavily upon error correction and this might become a limiting factor - the SSD device may end up having to spend too much time monitoring, managing and correcting itself.
"how they can be the earliest?"
I think what was meant was that they are (amongst) the earliest rocks for which we have evidence i.e. they still exist - any older rocks have been entirely reprocessed by erosion or complete remelting deep inside the Earth and no longer exist in any identifiable form.
The Acasta Gneisses are not quite reckoned to be the oldest rocks - at ~4.4 Gy old zircons from the Jack Hills in Australia are older, but they are believed to be the oldest exposed rocks.
What bothers me about the hypotheses is that metamorphic rocks are formed under both temperature and pressure, with pressure seeming to play a greater part - Wikipedia says that the temperatures just need to be greater than 150-200C (the original rock doesn't need to be remelted to be transformed to metamorphic rock) but the pressures need to be greater than 100 megapascals (1,000 bar). Now whilst a meteorite impact will create great pressure, it will be in the form of a brief shock wave, which will have more of a brisant shattering effect than a compressing effect, and indeed, it is these shattering effects, such as 'shatter cones' and 'shocked quartz' that are regarded as proof of an impact.
Another problem is that whilst an impact event could certainly produce temperatures high enough to remelt surface rocks it would also mix them all up in that melting but all the pics of Acasta Gneiss that I've seen show some banding, which suggests that they weren't mixed up - the stratification appears to have been preserved.
IPv6 is necessary for IoT, and IoT isn't just about 'smart' kettles etc.
For example, yesterday I read the RAIB report on the derailment at Loch Eilt on 22nd Jan 2018, which was due to a landslide. The landslide occurred at some time after the last train of the 21st had run and wasn't detected until the first train of the 22nd ran in to it*
Whilst systems are available to detect landslides in remote locations they could be described as being fairly primitive, usually relying upon the deflection or separation of a length of one or more wires, strung alongside the tracks, by falling rocks or movement of the underlying ground; they work ok but are a bit Heath-Robinsonish and, being primarily mechanical, are rather fragile (as a safety system) and need regular maintenance.
An IoT solution, using simple strain gauges and movement sensors, would be both cheaper, provide more information i.e. the exact location and scale of the slide, be more reliable and require less maintenance. But you needs lots and lots of them - IPv6 is ideal for this sort of stuff.
* The location at which the landslide occurred wasn't considered to be at high risk from such events so the expense of installing one of the current types of warning system there couldn't reasonably be justified; an IoT solution should be a lot less expensive though, through lower initial & maintenance costs.
I've got to disagree; the two axis are clearly labelled, indicating the different windows and scaling, so there's really nothing 'misleading' about them.
People will only be mislead if they don't pay attention.
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