Re: MS java versus Sun
Sun never intended Java to be a single-vendor system. They recognised, correctly, that developers are reluctant to commit to a new environment that is someone's exclusive property. So from the word go there was a process to allow others to develop complete Java implementations. These had to be compatible at the bytecode level at runtime, so that Java could interoperate at the binary level, and pass an extensive compatibility test suite. Once complete, you'd get a licence from Sun to call your product Java(TM). 10 years ago, I was working on a JVM at a company that did exactly that.
MS also took a licence, and then released MS Java. MS Java included additional methods in the standard classes, methods that the documentation did not even identify as not being part of standard Java. The clear intention was that developers would be suckered into writing Java that was not portable beyond the Microsoft system. This was a naked breach of the terms of the Sun licence, and it was on that basis that Sun sued.
Android uses Java the language, and provides compatible versions of some of the standard Java classes. But it does not use the Java runtime bytecode; instead, it uses a completely different bytecode and VM, Dalvik. You can't plonk a standard Java binary onto an Android device and expect it to work. The important point here is that Google do not claim to be shipping Java(TM), believe that using Java-the-language is perfectly permissible, and have no Sun licence.
So the legal matters at issue are completely different.
IANAL. But if the original vendor of a language has the power to stop others doing compatible implementations, or demand royalties, as long as no trademarks or patents are violated, it's news to me. And as others have pointed out, if this were to turn out to be the case, m'learned friends at IBM, where SQL originated, will doubtless want a very, very expensive word with Oracle.