* Posts by mathew42

681 posts • joined 29 Sep 2011

Page:

Can't unlock an Android phone? No problem, just take a Skype call: App allows passcode bypass

mathew42
Devil

Is the implication of this that any application which has 'disable your screen lock' vulnerable? This permission is under 'Other'.

Seems like for some with nefarious intent it would be trivial to slip into an application and trigger via push to a specific phone at a later point in time.

Fingerprint readers are becoming common place now. An answer call by scanning fingerprint sounds attractive, but would require an alternative with bluetooth.

Techie was bigged up by boss… only to cause mass Microsoft Exchange outage

mathew42
Mushroom

Simply seeing shutdown on the same menu as log off sends chills down my spine every time I see it.

Sure I can understand how it makes perfect sense for a desktop system, but for a production server where I don't have access to restart the box. Not good.

EU wants one phone plug to rule them all. But we've got a better idea.

mathew42
Megaphone

Where are they magnetic connections?

I've have a MacBook and a Sony Tablet with a magnetic connection for charging. Best experience ever!

Connecting is a matter of bringing the cable vaguely close to the correct spot and letting the attraction force gently snap the connection in place. Easy to do by feel as there is no need to correctly line up the port. Easy to do with one hand as you don't need to brace the device as you push the connector in.

There are several online sellers offering adaptors, but I'm reluctant to go a non-standard approach with the risk that in 12 months time when I buy another device the seller isn't in business and I end up with multiple standards.

One of the most common failures (particularly with devices the kids use) is the USB port failing due to rough treatment.

Oz digital health agency tightens medical record access as watchdog warns of crim honeypot

mathew42
Thumb Down

I'm surprised the government hasn't simply added creating a record to their practice incentive payment scheme. For those not aware the government makes additional payments to clinics which achieve certain KPIs.

For GPs already using medical records software it would be a simple ticking of a box and wait for the cash to arrive.

Bonkers Azure bookings give Microsoft a record-breaking $110bn year

mathew42

Re: Great, just great

> PHB's eye up the potential savings without ever considering (or being given the data to consider) doing it properly.

I think another factor is poor service from IT departments that might be driving companies to the cloud, particularly for software as a service. A competent IT department can deliver great service, but building and keeping a team of competent staff is a non-trivial exercise. Compounding this are consultants who deliver crap and rarely stick around long enough to learn the business.

As for the rest of your comments, I agree.

Trainee techie ran away and hid after screwing up a job, literally

mathew42
Joke

Re: Key word is "Trainee"

> it might as well be the one whose time is least valuable in terms of the work being paid for

Manager?

mathew42

Re: He started a new life

Dentists do not typically obtain a medical degree although there can be significant overlap with a medical degree in the early years. Dentists have limited prescribing rights.

Interestingly most dental work is not covered by Medicare.

Telstra reveals radical restructure plan

mathew42

Labor created the NBN as a monopoly to replace Telstra. Now it appears that Telstra have decided to structurally separate and there is a reasonable chance that either NBNCo will be purchased by InfraCo or the other way around. If Labor had courage this would have occurred in 2008/2009 and potentially the NBN would be in a better state. Potentially NBNCo could purchase InfraCo assets but not the employees, this would deliver significant savings in current payments to Telstra.

It will be interesting to see how Telstra competes going forward. Failures in the mobile network mean it is loosing it's competitive advantage and it will be interesting to see Telstra retain sufficient fibre to compete in the FTTB market.

Um, excuse me. Do you have clearance to patch that MRI scanner?

mathew42

Lack of security updates is common to all devices

> "This creates a problematic situation in cybersecurity because when a medical device has been tested and sold to a hospital, a vendor is focused on creating the future wave of whatever medical devices they are working on," Zilbiger said.

Waiting for 100 Mbps NBN on wireless? Errr, umm, sorry about that

mathew42
FAIL

Re: They got 100Mbps wireless in Iceland (country)

> History won't look kindly on what the current mob have done to the project.

I expect history won't look kindly on Labor either. Labor planned to build NBN with FTTN, but were thwarted by Telstra, so chose FTTP as a face saving option. Labor designed the financial model with opaque cross subsidy model, instead of transparency. Labor chose to implement a monopoly to replace the previous monopoly Telstra. Labor chose an optimistic financial model with a cowardly compromise between access fees and usage charges.

The result is demand for speed is significantly less than Labor forecast. On a 1Gbps network, >80% were on 25Mbps or slower when Labor lost government. The costs (particularly overheads) have blown out and the build was well behind schedule. The reality is for the vast majority limited by speed tiers, the physical medium doesn't matter as long as it supports 25Mbps.

mathew42
FAIL

Labor's speed tiers bite again

> stop us if you've heard this one – “there's not mass-market demand” for services at that speed.

ACCC NBN Wholesale Market Indicators report indicates only 14% on fixed NBN connections are ordering 100Mbps very few are ordering faster speeds.

RSPs are reluctant to serve the 100Mbps market because these are largely power users who put greater demand on the network and are more likely to monitor the performance of their connection.

NBNCo have bundled CVC with 50Mbps AVC making this speed the most appealing.

nbn™ ponders a gamers' gate to throttle heavy wireless users

mathew42

Re: Wanking load of #$%@^$&()(_*()+_!!!!!!

> stop worrying so much about everybody using bandwidth they've paid for

The problem is that those downloading significantly more haven't paid for the bandwidth they are using. RSPs have chosen to sell unlimited data plans and under provision CVC (1-2Mbps per user).

Having said that streaming radio should be under 256Kbps which would work on ADSL1. A better example would be the streaming of a rocket launch in real-time.

mathew42

No. The Labor NBNCo Corporate Plan clearly documented that data (CVC) growth would be the primary source of revenue growth enabling access charges (AVC) to be cut. This revenue growth was supposed to pay for network upgrades (extra wireless transmitters, GPON2.5 to GPON10, faster routers & switches, etc.). LNP chose to cut CVC ($20/Mbps down to $8 and then started bundling) so NBNCo receive significantly less revenue from data growth.

mathew42
Facepalm

Clearly heavy downloaders are causing the congestion issues.

Labor had a very simple solution: usage based pricing, because it incentivises NBNCo to run a congestion free network to grow CVC revenue.

mathew42
Facepalm

LNP have cut NBNCo revenue from CVC

Labor's intention was for NBNCo revenue growth to come from CVC data usage income. This was wise, because as streaming moved from HD, to FHD to 4K and beyond users would naturally consume more without a change in behaviour.Users would choose a larger quota and NBNCo would receive additional revenue to upgrade the network.

RSPs wanted to sell unlimited plans and purchased insufficient CVC to meet the requirements. The LNP were smarter than most give them credit for and responded by reducing CVC pricing from $20/Mbps to $8/Mbps and then bundling CVC with AVC, while using the ACCC to crack down on RSPs with congestion.RSPs are reluctant to sell faster speeds because the small number willing to pay for 100Mbps and faster will be more demanding and more likely to monitor the performance of their connections.

The impact of this is that:

- NBNCo cannot drop the connection (AVC) pricing because CVC revenue has been cut

- NBNCo doesn't have the budget to increase network capacity in response to customer demand

- Demand for higher speeds not supported by FTTN is suppressed

Possibly the only solution is for a program similar to Technology Change for wireless, where customers can contribute to the cost.

nbn™ CEO didn't mean to offend gamers, just brand them unwelcome bandwidth-hogs

mathew42
FAIL

> Would you be willing to pay for something that you can't get?

The weakness in demand for 100Mbps services existed well before the first FTTN connection.

Would it be correct to assume you allude to the issues with congestion?

Fibre fanbois rant about a lack of access to fast speeds, yet all the evidence points towards Australians preferring unlimited data with >85% of Australians being unwilling to pay for fast speeds even when available.

mathew42

> So whilst your claims are factual, they are based on the mistaken idea that all NBN installs are the same.

1. FTTN rolled out start after 2014.

2. ACCC NBN Wholesale Market Indicators report shows little difference in take-up between the various technologies.

The reality is that most Australians don't care about speed, but want unlimited data even if they are not going to use it. Paul Britt, Aussie Broadband Rep made an interesting statement on changing to unlimited:

"It came down to some market research. We were finding that we were generating lots of calls into our call centre but around 50% of the people wanted to buy unlimited. Now about 20% of those we were able to educate why they probably didn't need unlimited (explain about actual data usage etc), but about 80% just had it in their head they needed unlimited or didn't want to have to worry about it. So we were missing out on a lot of sales as a result.

Whilst there will be some users who will just go to town on it, the majority of users follow a more normal pattern. We are predicting there will be a lot on unlimited that don't even use 500GB, and there will be some that use 3TB but there will be more on the lower end of the scale then the higher end."

The issue I see is that as higher speeds are offered, the minority have greater opportunity to download excessively ruining the experience for everyone. The well known economic theory 'Tragedy of the Commons' explains this in more detail.

mathew42

The demand for 100Mbps has been falling since day 1 and since 2014 hasn't been above 15%.

mathew42
Alert

Are you going to pay for that level of network performance?

Less than 14% are willing to pay for 100Mbps speed tier.

The reality is that under the Liberals, NBNCo have responded to RSP demands by cutting CVC pricing from $20/Mbps to $8/Mbps, resulting in NBNCo's revenue being significantly reduced.

Want to really cause some chaos? Find a few friends connected 100Mbps or even 50Mbps plans on the same POI and run some heavy P2P sharing. Unlimited plans mean you will quickly congest the network all without even leaving the RSP's network.

mathew42

Re: toing the party line

Labor documented in the NBNCo Corporate Plan that the recommended minimum speed for education and in-home medical care was 100Mbps.

Trump’s new ZTE tweets trump old ZTE tweets

mathew42
Facepalm

Re: The only part that is debatable is the level of intelligence behind the mask.

So answers from kids about who stole the lollies from the jar are likely to be more trustworthy / consistent?

nbn™ isn’t fixing HFC, it’s ‘optimising’ it

mathew42

Re: A rate of 100,000 a month

Two people I know living in different cities have had boxes placed on the side of their walls with HFC cables, However the ready date given by NBNCo is not until next year. I would assume that the lead-in to the house is the most significant part of the work.

By installing the lead-in it might be reducing the options for changing the network to FTTC or FTTP prior to completion.

I was sceptical of Labor overbuilding the HFC network and I still don't understand how NBNCo have taken a working network and broken it.

nbn™ scoreboard: miracle needed to hit FY 18 construction targets

mathew42
FAIL

> And average revenue per user shows no signs of heading higher, probably a legacy of last year’s wholesale discounting to get users onto higher speed tiers

The biggest discounting has occurred for CVC pricing. First the price was cut from $20/Mbps to $8/Mbps and then NBNCo started bundling CVC with 50Mbps speeds.

Labor's stated intention in the NBN Corporate Plan was to grow revenue through data usage (CVC). The Liberals have reduced the revenue growth from data and supported the RSPs selling unlimited plans. The consequence of this is that faster internet speeds will be ever more costly.

NBN dragging Telstra down, carrier wants 5G to haul it up again

mathew42
WTF?

> One of nbn™'s most intractable problems is how to grow its monthly average revenue per user (ARPU)

Increasing ARPU is not an intractable problem. Labor had the solution: usage based charging via CVC. Those who use the network more pay for it (like tolls on roads and fuel excise) avoiding the tragedy of the commons. The coalition have cleverly thwarted this by first reducing CVC from $20 to $8 and then bundling CVC into plans.

RSPs offering unlimited data plans have little incentive to offer faster plans because those paying extra for faster plans are likely to be more demanding and capable of monitoring performance.

FTTP NBN gone from draft Australian Labor Party policy platform

mathew42
FAIL

Re: Oh FFS

> My apologies to my fellow commentards for the length and for going off topic but mathew42 and his continual broken record rants really give me the shits.

How about apologising for your fibre fanboi rants which lack evidence?

> I also think Labor miscalculated the percentage of users who would have taken up a 1Gbps plan. Many business I know would like to have those sorts of speed NOW! and not in 2026.

I suggest reading the ACCC NBN Wholesale Market Indicators report for the real figures, which show Labor were overly optimistic on take-up of speeds. (83% on 25Mbps or slower!).

If you statement had a hint of truth thousands would be connected on 1Gbps plans, not the 176 of which ~100 are on MyRepublic's marketing promotion plans.

The reality is that if a business can justify the monthly cost of 1Gbps, then technology change is not a huge expense. The harsher reality is that demand for 100Mbps services has fallen since the early days of the NBN and only a few RSPs offer 250Mbps in very limited areas.

> The people of Australia and their GRANDCHILDREN have been cheated out of a high class Information Highway. Where this country would have been one of the world leaders, it is now close to scraping the bottom of the Information Highway barrel.

The single factor that cheated most Australians was Labor's decision to add speed tiers. That decision resulted in 83% on 25Mbps or slower. Labor's NBNCo Corporate Plan has a chart showing how speed tiers will cause Australia to fall behind.

> The increase in GDP caused by the NBN would had added additional revenue

The average speed on FTTN is 68Mbps. That means if LNP removed speed tiers on FTTN, the average speed would be higher than FTTP with Labor's speed tiers.

The GDP growth predictions are based on increases in average speed (e.g. 1Mbps increase results in x% GDP increase). If you accept the reality of Labor's speed tiers reducing that potential 1Gbps down to slightly over 25Mbps, then the additional revenue is theoretically still coming into the budget.

> Labor also ordered the two Skymuster satellites, you know the ones Turnbullshit said weren't needed because there was sufficient capacity available

I think you are misquoting Turnbull. The argument was not about the need for more satellites, but buying capacity from private operators versus building satellites. By purchasing 2 satellites, Labor have trapped NBNCo. Instead, NBNCo could have had multiple options including Project Loon & SpaceX which will deliver faster cheaper services.

mathew42
Facepalm

New pricing structure is a brilliant political ploy by LNP. They've set the pricing so that for included 2.5Mbps CVC on 50Mbps makes it the best value for an RSP. Unlimited data plans are pretty much the only option and this means RSPs have a great disincentive to offer plans faster than 50Mbps due to the extra load faster users will place on the network. LNP have cut the price of CVC from $20 to $8 removing NBNCo's major source of revenue growth under Labor plan meaning that NBNCo cannot cut AVC prices further suppressing demand for faster speeds.

LNP will be able to claim that for most users on NBN speeds have doubled from 25 to 50Mbps but that demand for 100Mbps is low and almost non-existent for faster speeds, justifying the MTM decision.

mathew42
FAIL

Re: Who wants boring at 1 Gigiabyte per second.

You might want it, but can you afford it? Labor expected <1% to be on 1Gbps in 2026. If you are in the 1% then technology change will be small change.

nbn™ loses its head: CEO Bill Morrow bails

mathew42
FAIL

> FTTN model was doomed from the day it was even conceived

Considering that 84% are connected at 25Mbps or slower thanks to Labor's speed tiers FTTN will be adequate for a while longer. If you want faster speeds pay for an upgrade. However with unlimited plans becoming dominate in the market place, headline speed may not mean much.

nbn™ CEO pleads with staff to control costs in ‘seeya later’ letter

mathew42
FAIL

Discounting CVC was the worst decision Morrow made.

Labor configured the NBNCo financial model to have revenue growth from CVC (data) and to keep AVC (connection fees) as low as possible. Under Morrow, NBNCo has discounted CVC to lower than Labor ever planned and encouraged RSPs to offer unlimited plans.

NBNCo don't have a revenue growth stream.

NBNCo have no incentive to provide a congestion free network because they won't see revenue grow.

RSPs have no incentive to offer faster plans because ACCC are hot on 'actual speeds'.

Labor's mistake was speed tiers.

nbn™ gives ISDN, Frame Relay and Ethernet Lite a stay of execution

mathew42
FAIL

Re: What a mess.

Average speeds in Australia would not have changed much. According to the ACCC NBN Wholesale Market Indicators Report, 84% of fixed connections are 25Mbps or slower.

The LNP have responded to criticism of the NBN by reducing CVC prices down from Labor's $20 to $8, which is the lowest that Labor expected prices to fall to. This has significantly cut NBN revenue growth and limited it's ability to cut AVC prices, but you asked for it ;-).

mathew42

Re: does it matter ?

> I speed tested multiple "providers" Not much difference.

Did you test any providers who don't sell unlimited data plans? A few RSPs (e.g. AussieBroadband) stake their reputation on excellent performance.

You can easily calculate the maximum RSP spend on CVC by using the NBNCo wholesale price list. The basic calculation is: Maximum CVC spend equals retail plan minus 1/11 for GST minus AVC charge.

Of course this doesn't take into consideration the RSP's other costs (backhaul, support, sales, profit margin, etc).

At that point it becomes clear that only a few users sharing your PoI who use their connections heavily will cause peak period congestion.

mathew42

Re: does it matter ?

Have you checked if your new RSP sells unlimited data plans? If so it is very likely they purchase insufficient CVC. Try switching to an RSP that doesn't sell unlimited data plans.

nbn™ scoreboard: our new way to look at Australia's national broadband network

mathew42

Of course FTTP works, but you've placed too much emphasis on the technology and not the fact that you've chosen a first class regional ISP. Most people are choosing budget RSPs selling cheap unlimited data plans and experience crap performance even of FTTP..

mathew42

Re: score 66/100 ---> 12/100

$40/month won't cover the costs. Average revenue per user (ARPU) has to be higher than $100 to cover costs.

You could drop the AVC to $20, remove the speed tiers and restore CVC to $20 for 1Mbps and significantly more people would connect. Budget RSPs offering unlimited data plans would still be crap, but premium RSPs would offer world class performance.

mathew42

CVC is NBN revenue solution

The CVC discounts associated with 50/20Mbps plans should see that change significantly. Still nowhere near the 1Gbps that Labor promised. Interestingly some RSPs are dropping 100Mbps speeds.

The majority on 50Mbps or slower will suit LNP fine as most FTTN will support this.

However that doesn't solve NBNCo's revenue problem. CVC and quotas was Labor's answer to that, because as more people streamed video at increasingly higher qualities and more frequently, data usage would grow naturally and along with it revenue.

nbn 's CVC discounts worked - ISPs splashed for 38 per cent more bandwidth

mathew42
FAIL

Re: not worth the nondelivered promises

FTTN unable to achieve faster than 50Mbps: 30%

FTTN % of fixed connections: 40% = 12%

% of premises connected (final estimate):: 30% = 4%

Pretty sad when replacing FTTP by FTTN impacts only 4% of the population because of Labor's speed tiers. These numbers should indicate to you why LNP aren't worried about electoral backlash over FTTN.

mathew42
FAIL

Re: not worth the nondelivered promises

NBNCo are on record that the the average FTTN speed is 68Mbps and that utilisation is 15%.

It is more likely that your issues are caused by selecting a budget RSP providing unlimited data plans with insufficient CVC.

mathew42
FAIL

Re: Still way overpriced?

Cost (NBN Build + NBN Operating + 7% ROI) = Revenue (AVC + CVC)

Labor's plan was always to see revenue grow from CVC income, and reduce AVC pricing = faster speeds.

Liberal's plan is to reduce CVC income and keep AVC prices high = slower speeds

Today we see unlimited data RSPs (e.g. Boom & MyRepublic) dropping or discussing dropping 100Mbps plans while quality RSPs (e.g Aussie Broadband) are increasing the number of locations with 250Mbps connections.

I find it ironic that the fibre fanbois criticising the government for FTTN are campaigning for unlimited data plans and CVC prices to cut which means higher speeds will cost more and hence there is less justification for FTTP or even FTTC.

The prices quoted by Tim are for backhaul between heavily serviced areas, whereas the NBN has a costly last mile build.

To hack Australia and learn its secrets, buy second-hand furniture

mathew42

Re: More common than you might think.

Agreed. At UNI, I purchased a second hand locked filing cabinet. I didn't even need to drill out the lock as a friendly locksmith was happy to cut me a new key based on the lock design and key number. Turned out the filing cabinet was full of client files from a legal practitioner who had retired. Passed the documents onto Law Society to be taken care of properly.

However, one would like to hope that our government might take better care of documents.

Australia won't prescribe its national broadband network a high-fibre diet

mathew42

Re: Bypass altogether?

The biggest performance issue with the NBN is RSPs selling unlimited data plans with inadequate CVC. Pick an ISP like AussieBroadband who don't sell unlimited data plans and performance shouldn't be an issue.

FTTB performance should be close to 100Mbps unless you are in an exceptionally large complex or your building wiring is very old.

mathew42
FAIL

Re: @bd1235

When you look at how the core Labor policy of a national network with speed tiers with the lowest speed pricing equivalent to ADSL pricing, the LNP changes haven't impacted that much.

Surprisingly the reduction of CVC from Labor's $20 to $8 which is the cheapest Labor expected doesn't get much press.

mathew42
FAIL

FTTP doesn't help 84% on 25Mbps or slower

The committee's recommendations don't address the more basic issues of

  • 84% connecting at 25Mbps or slower (ACCC NBN Wholesale Market Indicators Report) that has been caused by Labor's speed tiers.
  • RSPs selling unlimited plans with insufficient CVC causing peak period congestion
Switching to FTTP will only benefit the <1% that Labor optimistically predicted in the NBNCo Corporate Plan would connect at 1Gbps in 2026.

The public have overwhelmingly determined that they prefer a cheap 25Mbps unlimited data plan to faster plans with a quota. A few quality RSPs only sell plans with quotas and customers don't experience congestion. For those on FTTN who want 100Mbps, the technology change process exists.

OK, Google: Why does Chromecast clobber Wi-Fi connections?

mathew42
Facepalm

You are using the device incorrectly. All devices should be on at all times to accumulate information and help the cloud become smarter.

mathew42
Unhappy

Router code is just as crap

Router coding doesn't seem significantly better when a flood of packets will fill up the router's memory and require a physical report.

In summary, any (malicious) code on the network with access to generate UDP packets can cause most routers to lock-up.

Amazon: Intel Meltdown patch will slow down your AWS EC2 server

mathew42
Flame

Re: maybe it's time to re-consider server-side inefficiency

Hear. Hear!

I've spent the last week looking at some horrible SQL stored procedures with needless outer joins, excessive use of views, temporary and updating individual fields in the temporary tables. Unfortunately I don't have the original requirements and I'm doubtful that the code was bug free. I'm not looking forward to UAT.

TPG joins the NBN speed-fail refund club

mathew42
Meh

The variability of the copper is a good argument for the removal of speed tiers on FTTN, and to simply charge everyone the 12Mbps wholesale speed.

The arguments in parliament about why FTTN average speed of 68Mbps is significantly higher than FTTP with speed tiers would make for some very interesting watching.

nbn™tries to ease peak hour crunch with cheaper bundles

mathew42
Devil

What is to stop an RSP buying the cheaper bundled 100Mbps product for the ~14% connected at 100Mbps and reducing their CVC spend for 12 & 25Mbps plans?

mathew42

Re: 12 Mbps for $22 per month.?

It would be interesting to see the cost breakdown for your service. 100Mbps AVC wholesale price is $38 + GST, so most likely you are sharing a connection. Let Lets assume that 100 units are connected that is $3000 / month + GST in revenue. Lets assume a small business plan with a premium ISP like Aussie Broadband is $195. That is a significant gap between what you are being charged and the cost of the service. Now it may not be unreasonable when you consider the cost of connecting each unit and ongoing maintenance.

So your contention ratio is 150:1. The fact your worst recorded speed is 28Mbps is remarkable. I suggest not mentioning video streaming to your neighbours because that speed could plummet rapidly.

mathew42
FAIL

> The CVC pricing bears no relation to the network cost of providing the transmission that represents

It costs the same to deliver a 12Mbps speed and a 1Gbps speed connection. What the above statement misses is the need to upgrade backhaul (including routers & switches) to cope with increased traffic.

The pricing model for the NBN is entirely an artificial construct defined for price recovery and the political constraint that a 12Mbps plan should cost no more than an ADSL plan. The basic equation is that AVC + CVC > costs.

Labor cleverly decided that revenue growth would come from data growth. RSPs by offering unlimited plans have undermined this. Unlimited plans only benefit a small number who are heavy downloaders. The majority who are below the mean would save money on a plan with a quota. The problem is that a small number of people will thrash the network impacting on everyone. Data quotas effectively control this scenario and push costs on to those who make the most use of the network.

If Labor hadn't added speed tiers we wouldn't have FTTN, FTTB & HFC. Instead today 84% are connected at 25Mbps or less and those on faster speeds who foolishly select a provider with unlimited data plans experience congestion in the evening.

Optus to refund NBN customers for slow connections

mathew42
FAIL

Peak speed is a distraction

According to ACCC, 84% are connecting at 25Mbps or slower, and of those only 3% on 25Mbps couldn't achieve 25Mbps. That means for >80% this is a non-issue. Meanwhile unlimited data plans with insufficient CVC backing are causing most people to be impacted by slow downs.

I'm still hoping that NBN will abolish speed tiers on the FTTN. This should see the average speed rise to 68Mbps significantly faster than FTTP with speed tiers.

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