* Posts by Roo

1540 posts • joined 21 Sep 2010

Indictment bombshell: 'Kremlin intel agents' hacked, leaked Hillary's emails same day Trump asked Russia for help

Roo
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Re: Brexit bus disowned next day

"Remain could have ran a positive campaign on the actual benefits of EU membership, rooted in fact, rather than a negative campaign based on lies. But they didn't. In my view, that was a massive own goal, and deeply regrettable."

The Remain campaign did in fact campaign on the benefits, such as freedom of movement, freedom of trade within one of the worlds largest markets, the ability to shape the legislation and policy from within the EU, etc.. These benefits were discounted as part of "Project Fear" by those lovely gentlemen who spent so much time in the company of Putin's henchmen, and that cry was shouted loudly every single time the benefits were mentioned.

The Brexiteers tell us that they want to have their cake and eat it. The cake is a lie.

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Roo
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Re: Society Seems To Be Fragmeting or Declining in Standards

"it appears fine for Khan the Mayor of London to lead calls for a derogatory blimp of Trump to be used"

That is a blatant lie, protesters led the calls for the blimp to be used. The Lord Mayor of London simply granted permission for the protest to go ahead having being asked permission.

Blimps flying lawfully in London is small beer... Trump is cool with terrorists driving cars into crowds as protest, inciting lynching at his political rallies and taking a pop at folks because they are Muslim (including servicemen who gave their lives so that he could continue to be a fat self serving draft dodging racist).

The attacks on the Lord Mayor from Trump and his pals consist of bullshit garnished with innuendo, none of it stacks up to daylight scrutiny. As a punter I have to look at the track record of these folks to work out what their problem with the Mayor is, and I don't have to look too far to see that they have a *public* track record of discriminating against Muslims, denigrating Muslims and pushing Muslims around.

There are legit complaints against the Lord Mayor of London, I am just not seeing any in this faux outrage over a satirical blimp. :(

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'WHAT THE F*CK IS GOING ON?' Linus Torvalds explodes at Intel spinning Spectre fix as a security feature

Roo
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Re: The bug is better than the buggy fix !!!

"Seriously, I'm not running a VM farm, I don't give a shit about this and any of my own personal kit."

I'm in the same boat as far as my desktop box goes, but I do give a bit of a shit because quite frankly having a machine go tits up on you costs time and effort to resolve... I have found that prevention is better than a cure - simply because it wastes less time.

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Re: What about the SPARC processor ?

"Basically, if there's a way for a human to interact with it, there's probably a way to pwn it, and that's true even of black boxes."

There are degrees of badness.

"Basically, if there's a way for a human to interact with it, there's probably a way to pwn it, and that's true even of black boxes."

I do share your assertion that no box will ever be secure, but I don't see security as an end goal. It's a continuous process, one where you will usually be one step behind, and it can appear that you are so far behind that all your efforts are futile... However I derive some satisfaction in finding a good fix for a vuln and making my patch a little bit better than it was yesterday. :)

I see the whole vuln-discovery + vuln-remediation cycle as a an opportunity to broaden my knowledge of the systems I work with/against.

That said, I do admit that I do find the burden of supporting / using the crud I deal with on a daily basis pretty horrible...

I confess to feeling overwhelmed by the weight of despair that descends upon me when I find another JVM with wide open JMX sockets lurking in a dark corner, or some 9.7 CVSS score vuln in the 9000000 zillion .jars that Spring has pulled in because someone wanted to create an instance of an object using XML rather than a simple new.

Minding the C/C++ and Python stuff really is child's play by comparison.

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Roo
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Re: What about the SPARC processor ?

"Seems like turtles all the way down, if you ask me."

Nice to have a choice of turtles better suited the job at hand though. :)

I welcome the return of our LSI-11/03 console overlords...

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Roo
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Re: What about the SPARC processor ?

It turns out that recent SPARCs are also vulnerable to SPECTRE attacks... Relatively "easily" solved in this age of multi-core dies... Shoehorn a slow but secure core onto the die and run sensitive code on that core alone. The question becomes whether the user has enough "non-sensitive" code running to make the performance hit acceptable.

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Another data-leaking Spectre CPU flaw among Intel's dirty dozen of security bug alerts today

Roo
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Re: So what? CPU Errata exist since the first products hit the market...

"AMD kept lying telling that their products aren't affected and bug free. AMD doesn't make public most of its Errata. That is a fact. AMD is the one hiding and spreading fake info against its competitors."

Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof, of which you have provided precisely zero. In fact AMD *have* reported SPECTRE vulns - and they *do* publish their errata, although I can't prove that they publish it all. While we're in the business of fair play, you could also point out that the 800lb Gorilla's arse sat on errata for months and some cases years, MELTDOWN included.

Personally I'd like CPU vendors to feel confident enough to be open about their vulns, and be given the space to remove the root causes without people whining about backward compatibility. I think that *could* be achieved with a compact ISA with a freely available robust validation suite (actively maintained with tests for vulns added as they crop up). As it stands I think folks punting x86 chips are doomed to fail due to the inherent complexity and ambiguous spec of the ISA, they have a very tough job.

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Re: So what? CPU Errata exist since the first products hit the market...

"All of a sudden it seems that only Intel is affected by that while AMD saves the world or something?"

Intel ship the most $ worth of CPUs by a very wide margin, so they will naturally attract the most attention. The fact is SPARC, MIPS, ARM and even POWER have been reported as having SPECTRE vulns - so it's not just poor likkle old Intel.

To my reckoning there are an awful lot of VMs out there sharing Intel boxes on networks with strangers, so it seems reasonable that Intel cops the majority of the flak to me... Big fail is a natural by-product of big success. :)

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The strife of Brian: Why doomed Intel boss's ex86 may not be the real reason for his hasty exit

Roo
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Re: "So if Intel wants to sell CPUs, they should invest in Linux and the BSD's. "

"not so 'trivial' in real life. POSSIBLE, yes"

You are correct they are also possible, and I judge them to be trivial because I've been able to download a bit of code or read a paper and try them out at home without any special equipment beyond a Xeon inside a box as the victim. I'm not even an expert on this stuff, but as an amateur I have been able to fully crack Xeon boxes remotely or locally for *most* of the last decade or so that I've been taking a passing interest.

Ignoring or trivializing the problem will only help the crooks in the long run. Nor will "Safe Browsing" as long as the hardware remains fundamentally insecure.

Carry on Bob.

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"So if Intel wants to sell CPUs, they should invest in Linux and the BSD's. "

Intel already supports Linux (and BSDs) to varying degrees, it won't help, because their CPU + chipset + firmware stacks are trivial to crack remotely and locally so they are not fit for use for multiuser applications - which happens to cover the vast majority of their target market.

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Do UK.gov wonks understand sci-tech skills gap? MPs dish out Parliamentary kicking

Roo
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Re: Perhaps

"it would be better if the Mps et al were made aware of how much skill and knowledge it takes to produce stuff nowadays."

I can't upvote that enough and I'd add the top echelons of Manglement to that list of people who need to be made aware. This "agile workforce" shit has to end too - to do good quality work you need some time to learn how to do it.

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Re: Stream the schools not the children

"Streaming by schools doesn't work."

It can't work effectively in sparsely populated rural areas, because the distances between schools is too great. I wish folks would apply a bit of grey matter to the outliers of this problem before dictating their one-true solution. :)

I believe that local authorities need more say in how they fund and deliver their services, combined with a well funded agency that ensures standards are met across the country... Sort of what we have now - but with ministers surrendering much of their budget to local authorities. I don't think it's reasonable or even plausible to expect someone who has rarely stepped out of the SE England bubble or worked a trade to be qualified, let alone equipped to make decisions at regional level.

I think it would substantially reduce graft and wastage too... Case in point I heard of an incident where a minister was refusing to hand out funding unless a local gov agreed upfront to spend the money with the minister's preferred vendor (that just happened to be owned by a sibling of said minister supplying services priced at 160x the going market rate).

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Trump kept ZTE alive as ‘personal favour’ to Chinese president Xi

Roo
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Re: I am sure it had nothing to do with Trump receiving Chinese bribes

Hey, we were following the money. Trump is sat on a huge pile of it.

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NASA dusts off FORTRAN manual, revives 20-year-old data on Ganymede

Roo
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Re: The problem probably wasn't the software...

"The VAX format for floating point numbers, both single and double precision, differs from the now customary IEEE standard."

The VAX architecture was pretty well defined + documented in the manuals (including the FP formats) - and those documents still exist (in my bookshelf and likely bitsavers.org) - so I reckon that wouldn't be a barrier to someone who can bash bits around.

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Google gives its $1m Turing prize to, er, top Google bods: RISC men Hennessy, Patterson

Roo
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Re: Well well well

Spoof or otherwise, I guess we'd better clean up the language. :P

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Roo
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Re: Silicon valley view of the world

You beat me to it !

I really enjoy reading about Cocke's work and the machines he worked on - fascinating beasts. H&Ps contributions have become so ubiquitous that I take them for granted. Nice to see H&P getting some recognition - they changed things for the better in a big way. Perhaps RISC V will clear out the last vestiges of CISC. :)

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Intel: Our next chips won't have data leak flaws we told you totally not to worry about

Roo
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Re: Once upon a time....

The big expensive chips still come in socket format... Although I imagine Intel will be changing the socket again...

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Roo
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Re: So...a whole new computer?

Fair play on running OpenBSD on an O2. :)

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Mueller bombshell: 13 Russian 'troll factory' staffers charged with allegedly meddling in US presidential election

Roo
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@bombastic bob

"by accusing someone who disapproves of Mrs. Clinton of being a 'couch misogynist', you are making a ridiculous accusation, and in so doing, are basically 'crying wolf' with the 'misogyny' label."

The record will show that I made a wisecrack in the form of an unpleasant leading question. The accusation was implicit, an answer could have been given that showed that misogyny was not the root cause. So far we've had assertions that women don't get shot and misogynist views & behavior is not a factor in these attacks.

Your essay seems to be a round-about exercise in denying that there is a problem because (in your view) some folks cry wolf too much. Fair comment - but I think there is an equally strong case to say that folks have accepted public acts of misogyny for so long that they are desensitized to it or simply in denial.

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Roo
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Re: @unwarranted triumphalism

"So Giffords, who was shot by a grammar nutter who was concerned about how she wouldn't answer his questions about English Language usage is somehow a specific attack on women. "

That's half the truth leading to an unsupportable conclusion. The whole truth is that Bryce Tierny (the original source of that claim) also mentioned that Loughner asserted that women should not hold positions of power, and spent several years attacking her amongst his circle of friends to the attack.

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Re: @unwarranted triumphalism

Glad you agree that female politicians get shot, and it seems that you may agree to some degree that politicians get shot as a side-effect of over the partisan foul mouthing that goes on.

"I'm sure your OK with that -"

FWIW I'm not OK with anyone getting shot for stuff they aren't responsible for or have no control over.

"And attacking Trump the way you and others do DOES get people shot - like Scalise for example."

That would not be a valid excuse for anyone to behave badly, I reckon we could make more progress by rising above this divide and conquer bollocks.

The stuff I have *personally* posted in relation to Trump has also been placed in the public record by medical and law enforcement professionals acting in their professional capacity. Their statements carry more weight and have more evidence to support them than the cheapshot one-liners targetting an unsuccessful presidential candidate from pseudo-Anonymous posters on El Reg.

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Roo
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"Did you notice the nick?

He's either trying to be ironical and not signalling very well, or describing himself."

In fairness neither of those came to mind when I looked at the history of posts. Probably just another lost soul like the rest of us.

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Roo
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Re: @unwarranted triumphalism

"Literally everything you have said is a lie."

Plagiarizing Trump won't magically unshoot female politicians such as Jo Cox & Gabrielle Giffords. You don't have to look very far to find other examples.

"Do you need a safe space?"

Everyone needs a safe space in order to thrive. Case in point folks who live in war zones are more likely to die or get wounded in them than folks who stay out of war zones. I am no different, and I reckon you are no different in that regard.

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Roo
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@unwarranted triumphalism

That was a nothingburger of a post served with a side of women hating.

A number of (female) politicians have been attacked and shot by nutjobs who cite that same bullshit and name calling you are pedalling as justification for their attacks on women (fatal and otherwise).

Will you be appearing on the News anytime soon - or are you a couch misogynist ?

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Twitter breaks bad news to 677,775 twits: You were duped by Russia

Roo
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Re: "B****" --

Posted like a typical numpty who doesn't understand the words and labels that is written on their "distract the proles from the clusterfuck going on in the Whitehouse" script handed down to them by folks who really couldn't give a stuff if their shills live or die, only whether they'll get to keep a few % worth of tax which would pay for shills outgoings for a couple of million years.

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Oracle says SPARCv9 has Spectre CPU bug, patches coming soon

Roo
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Re: Confused, SPARC vulnerable or not?

"What part of Spectre being a hardware bug did you fail to understand? If a chip is vulnerable it doesn't matter what software you are running on it."

It appears to be theoretically possible to defeat those attacks with suitably crafted software, but that's a case of running new binaries - and likely some kind of hit in performance. The big.little boxes out there could run sensitive processes on an in-order processor - and the less sensitive workload on faster OOO cores.

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SPEC SFS 2014 benchmark smashed by storage newbie

Roo
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Re: Eh?

Looks handy to me.

I dreamt of this kind of throughput when waiting for a compile to complete off a Fujitsu Eagle back in the day (shared with 30 other people). Kinda fun to see it happen even if it's not quite the way I predicted... The TaihuLight boxes are hooked up with PCI-Express 3.0, so presumably they have a way to integrate NVMe drives directly into their fabric. Could be a fun OCCAM platform. :)

The PCI-Express 3.0 fabrics remind me of the some of the ideas floated for IEEE1355 back in the day, but much quicker and ubiquitous. It's fun to see (some) things get a lot better despite everything else falling apart. :)

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Meltdown, Spectre bug patch slowdown gets real – and what you can do about it

Roo
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Re: "What will it take for Amazon et al to create their own, secure CPU?"

"That would mean everyone would have to get replacements for any and all legacy apps, which is nigh on impossible for many companies.

ditching X86-32 might be a a good solution, it's not a viable option I'm afraid."

Folks were running x86-32 apps on UNIX with SoftPC in the 80s.

Folks were running x86-32 apps on DEC Alphas with FX!32 in the 90s (I found that a very low end Alpha PC166 most apps were *quicker* than they were on a PPro-200 - and the stuff that wasn't was only 5-10% off).

There is no technical barrier to emulating x86 at decent speeds in 2018, the only blockers are ignorance, politics and lawyers (licensing).

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"That's my understanding too. X86 is basically an emulation running on the RISC core."

I think misrepresents what goes on. I'm not an authority on the topic, but here's my take on it:

The (CISC) instruction decode stage(s) breaks the commonly used instruction sequences down to "micro ops".

Breaking down a multi-cycle 'CISC' instruction into lots of little u-ops then executing it in parallel with lots of other multi-cycle 'CISC' instructions poses some problems how to convey the illusion to the kernel & user that the instructions are executed in an atomic way... That entire set of quite gnarly gotchas is simply not an issue for a true RISC style design - by intent and design.

Some operations won't fit into that nice model - and for those we have microcode... Even 'RISC' chips can have microcode to handle the stuff that just doesn't fit. The Alpha had something slightly different called PALcode to handle those cases - where essentially the CPU was using a library of routines with access to implementation specific instructions... The ISA remained clean and it gave the DEC engineers a shot at implementing the machine specific crap in a RISC friendly way while keeping the details hidden from the users...

For a giggle I recommend tracking all the volumes describing the current Intel x86-64 ISA and then compare to the equiv. DEC Alpha ISA reference manual (its' much shorter)... All available for free and locatable via Google... The page count gives you a measure of how much more 'challenging' it would be to validate an x84-64 derivative... If you actually have a crack at digesting both you'll probably give up long before you get through the x86-64 manuals so I recommend starting with the Alpha first. ;)

YMMV

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Re: "What will it take for Amazon et al to create their own, secure CPU?"

"it's not exactly a simple and cheap task to build a high-performance high-security CPU."

Agreed, but folks following RISC design principles find it a lot cheaper and easier than building a fast x86... The design team sizes and benchmark results from the days when RISC vs x86 was a thing speak volumes for that.

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Re: So how much will this throw Intels release schedule out by?

"Corporate IT Managers will not order silicon with a known flaw (regardless of the patch) unless they absolutely have to, because people get fired over this kind of serious shit."

Few of the folks making the purchasing decisions read the errata let alone wait long enough for the showstopper errata to be discovered. Errata such as ECC failures leading to undefined behaviour didn't stop or noticeably delay folks buying the last few gens of Xeon in for example...

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PowerShell comes to MacOS and Linux. Oh and Windows too

Roo
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"Seems unlikely - a modern hybrid microkernel has several advantages. More likely Linux when needed will run as a plugin to the Windows kernel. In fact you can already do that under Windows 10."

IMO your strengths lie in FUD and bullshitting, best to keep out of the OS design biz. :)

Microsoft have already failed to assimilate POSIX with a plugin approach repeatedly. Running the code on a real UNIX/Linux was always cheaper, faster and more reliable - and didn't require a "porting" effort... MS are best to stick with running Linux under their Hypervisor and be happy that they get an OS license for running workload under someone else's OS.

As for Windows having a "hybrid microkernel" architecture, that is just marketing shite. The point of a microkernel is that the subsystems are isolated. It is fraudulent to attribute the term 'Microkernel' to something that shipped with vulns that allowed TrueType Font rendering to pwn ring0.

I don't mind folks talking up the benefits of Windows, but I draw the line at them rendering useful terms and concepts such as "Microkernel" meaningless by association.

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Intel’s Meltdown fix freaked out some Broadwells, Haswells

Roo
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Re: Remembering Snowden...

"Why in the world do you think Meltdown is something the NSA etc. would care about? It allows reading kernel data, big deal"

I reckon the NSA should care.

Meltdown can totally compromise the vast majority of desktop/server class Intel hardware out there, it's relatively awkward to fix, it has a very big exploitation window (22 years and counting if the P6 core really is vulnerable to it), it doesn't require much code to implement and it is relatively easy to hide from virus scanners. If they weren't interested they really should consider moving out of the spook biz.

Not really sure why you bothered with the asterisk, Apple don't get a pass because they still shipped vulnerable hardware just like everyone else... :)

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Butcher breaks out of own freezer using black pudding

Roo
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Re: Ee, bah, eck etc

"They advertise gluten free black pudding and haggis. Catering to the post-modern psychosomatic illness crowd[0] is a sure way to let standards slip."

Sir, I think you are being somewhat churlish. Another way of looking at it is that the Butcher is making the joys of Black Pudding & Haggis available to all. :)

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Re: Ee, bah, eck etc

"do not mock the smoked Grützwurst"

Quite frankly this Black Pudding enthusiast is salivating rather than contemplating mockery...

However I might be tempted indulge in a bit of mockery if I honestly believed I could convince someone to give up their Grutzwurst - allowing me to swoop in and scoff it before they realised their mistake. :)

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Devs see red after not seeing Big Red on Stack Overflow database poll

Roo
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"What the f* is "older organizations" supposed to mean? Basically +90% of the Fortune 100 use Oracle,"

The world doesn't owe Oracle a living and it is legacy gear now... The only folks who care enough are wannabe Greybeards tending the grave.

The Oracle fan boys get to know what it felt like for the VMS or OS/400 enthusiasts a couple of decades back - although in fairness at least those products were well engineered and well documented so their day jobs were more enjoyable.

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Here come the lawyers! Intel slapped with three Meltdown bug lawsuits

Roo
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Re: @SkippyBing

"but the effects would be to significantly slow development"

I suspect Intel's "Tick/Tock" development model with releases being pegged to a particular date in time years before they are even developed contributes to the problem. Intel been pushing stuff out of the door before it's been fully baked to meet a marketing deadline for a while now.

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Roo
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Re: Should Intel (and other chip makers) be held responsible for hardware flaws?

"If it can be shown that intel manglement knew about the bug and yet kept on baking/selling chips regardless then I'd suspect they wont have a leg to stand on"

There are plenty of published show-stopper errata that show Intel doing exactly that over several decades. Customers typically decide that the expense of the lawsuit combined with the publicity that shows their products/services are impacted by it would do more damage than the errata...

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"a real lawyer with IT knowledge would have known that there is practically NO SUCH thing as a CPU on the market these days that is not affected by Meltdown and/or Spectre"

A real commentard with CPU architecture expertise would know that there are CPUs on the market that are not affected by those bugs... :)

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Woo-yay, Meltdown CPU fixes are here. Now, Spectre flaws will haunt tech industry for years

Roo
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Re: RE: need a whole new architecture

"A whole new architecture was already tried."

Indeed, many many many times over and I suspect it'll continue for a while yet as the wheel of reincarnation makes another revolution... With respect to your close relative they should be paying attention to the folks in the ocean boiling business, the #1 HPC system uses a fairly unique CPU architecture - and it has been delivering better FLOPS/W (YMMV) than it's competitors running state of the art Intel + GPU combos out there for some years now...

Sometimes folks using different tools get better results...

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Meltdown, Spectre: The password theft bugs at the heart of Intel CPUs

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Re: @Dan 55

As it turns out (and in fairness to Intel) I did actually find the Core 2 Duo errata Theo referred to back in 2007 after a bit more fiddling around with search criteria...

http://download.intel.com/design/processor/specupdt/313279.pdf

The closest issues to Meltdown that I found (maybe someone smarter can find more) were AI56, AI91 and AI99:

AI56 "Update of Read/Write (R/W) or User/Supervisor (U/S) or Present (P) Bits without TLB Shootdown May Cause Unexpected Processor Behavior"

AI91 "Update of Attribute Bits on Page Directories without Immediate TLB Shootdown May Cause Unexpected Processor Behavior"

AI99 "Updating Code Page Directory Attributes without TLB Invalidation May Result in Improper Handling of Code #PF"

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@Dan 55

"Seems Theo was looking at this a decade ago so I guess OpenBSD is already okay."

AFAICT those OpenBSD fixes related to an unpublished change w.r.t bits of page table being cached when previously they were not. I think it would be dangerous to assume those fixes also cover Meltdown.

The points Theo made about the errata preventing people from implementing secure software remain valid.

As I've said before folks really should look at the errata before purchasing a CPU - it is shocking just how broken some of them really are. That won't always help though - case in point try tracking down all the errata that Theo talked about (eg: AI90) 10 years ago... You may well struggle - because Intel's policy is to unpublish errata after they've made a fix/spec change... If anyone does find those errata - let me know. ;)

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Re: What I don't understand

Your bafflement is entirely justified.

Intel are very lucky that their unique to them and trivially exploitable Meltdown bugs are being conflated with Spectre, they should be getting an extra roasting for that one.

In terms of Spectre that seems to be a very generic label for a bunch of quite different vulns when you dig into what info is leaked and how you would exploit them usefully.

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Re: Maybe we dodged a bullet?

"Lots of fundamental development process rethinking required in the semi-conductor world required...."

Broadly agreeing - but I don't see this as an industry wide problem. There are plenty of well established tools and techniques in place that would catch this kind of thinko - but they all require a precise, complete and self-consistent definition of how the chip is meant to work. The x86 doesn't have such a definition in the public domain, and given the nature of the errata over the years there is plenty of evidence that Intel doesn't have one (or make use of one) in their design process either.

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We translated Intel's crap attempt to spin its way out of CPU security bug PR nightmare

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Re: "as designed"

If that is by design then they have intentionally broken backwards compatibility with their in-order CPUs... Well played Chipzuki.

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Re: Mixed signals on CPU's

Apparently early Atoms before they decided to bless them with OOO execution are OK.

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Re: AMD not vulnerable

"Ps AMD never copied Intel, the had tp do a "clean room" to do the microcode themselves."

That's flat out wrong. :)

Back in the day various entities such as the "Defence" contractors and big vendors required a chip to have a 'second source' vendor. AMD entered into a licensing agreement with Intel to be the second source for x86 parts - thereby enabling Intel to tender for those contracts. At one stage AMD were literally given a set of masks by Intel, and AMD used them to punch out identical - so strictly speaking they did in fact copy the Intel parts, but quite legally as per their second sourcing agreements.

As time has gone by AMD did some tweaks (eg: faster 286s, 386s, 486s which inspired Intel to unleash the lawyers at various points). Eventually they rolled their own in house designs (K5,K6,Opteron et al) - on the back of those second source agreements. Intel & AMD have continued to spend money in court wrangling over those agreements - but I think that's been settled for a good few years now.

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Re: AMD not vulnerable

" It's a basic need to ensure caches are kept filled."

Speculative execution keeps pipelines filled, filling caches is down to the memory controllers... ;)

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Kernel-memory-leaking Intel processor design flaw forces Linux, Windows redesign

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Re: Hmmm...

"We never worried about "security" in the old days of processor design"

How old is old ? MMUs have been around a long time now.

"We never worried about "security" in the old days of processor design, we were far more worried about incorrect access causing a crash and that took priority - with the result that modern security issues were mostly nonexistent."

Seems to depend on where you worked - some vendors never embraced KISS. The protection features of the DEC Alpha were far easier to understand, use, test and verify than the equiv plumbing on the much older i386 for example.

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"Although Intel seemed to have turned a corner since Core 2 Duo came along, they've made loads of previous muck-ups."

*cough*

https://www.theregister.co.uk/2007/06/28/core_2_duo_errata/

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