A healthy economy usually requires a little of everything, with emphasis on what you do well. Right now the US economy is virtually stripped of real product manufacturing capability with the exception of automobiles. There are a lot of sectors that need attention but manufacturing tends to be the magnet for attention.
We need to continue with our high tech fields and revoke some of the snooping laws so that sector doesn't get hammered by back lash. It is in pretty good shape for the near term so can be left alone for now.
We need to rebuild manufacturing. This will need at least 2 things: Restructuring bureaucracy so that we don't slide backwards environmentally but the process is streamlined so it isn't a quagmire of sometimes competing laws, regulations, rules and whims. We have to figure out some way of renewing the work ethic of the general populace. Part of this will have to come from the C level offices realizing that if you want loyal, hardworking employees you have to pay and treat them decently.
Education: We have to look elsewhere for how to fix our system. It produces indoctrinated lumps that haven't been taught to think for themselves. We have an overemphasis on post secondary education also. You don't need a business degree to answer the phone - if you aren't going to pay bachelor degree wages don't require it. Especially for a work function that doesn't require it.
*I* think where we have gone wrong is not emphasizing the love of learning (not necessarily education in a formal setting) and instead touting it as a means to an end rather than something that can enrich your life outside of your job. I'm not saying that formal education is not desirable or necessary because it certainly is in some instances. I am saying that you shouldn't push students to take a bunch of classes that don't relate to their needs. Let them look at those optional courses after getting into the workforce. Make those art, philosophy, music etc classes available on an ad hoc basis for the curious. If someone really wants to major in those, by all means do so. Just don't expect a job designing airplane parts when you are done. We have condoned a very close-minded view of the working classes and managed to convince whole generations of young people that working with your hands isn't desirable or necessary. Worse yet, we have created (or at least continued) a class stratification that makes it so knowledge workers don't want to be seen with "blue collar" workers. There is a pervasive idea that uneducated equals dumb. You see it on here in the comments regularly. Some of the dumbest SOBs I know managed to grade curve their way through college and some of the smartest people I know knew enough not to blow money on formal education because they knew they wanted to be craftsmen. They also tend to educate themselves by select reading.
TL;DR Mike Rowe says it better - just look up his foundation.