You really ought to stop getting your daily intake of misinformation from MSLSD. You have such a mishmash of conflicting information I'm not sure I can sort it out for you, but I'll give it a shot.
1. Republicans aren't anti-science. They are anti-politicizing science. If the rest of the budget is in order, they're up for funding the next gizmo after the latest particle Large Hadron Collider. To the extent we have a gripe with NASA it is that we need to get the government out of NASA and let private enterprise begin to drive space exploration and development. The one function of NASA that probably needs to remain with government is a regulatory function similar to the FAA as private development proceeds.
2. Neither Libertarians nor social conservatives are in favor of subsidies to corporations. RINOs might be. We both favor reducing tax rates to the minimum necessary to provide for the constitutionally permitted functions of government. We regard taxes on business as inefficient and constitutionally questionable because no business actually pays taxes. They pass along the cost to the consumer and reduce output of whatever good it is the business would otherwise be producing.
3. The primary source for taxes is something of a topic for debate. The two primary camps are a flat national sales tax (not a VAT) or a flat national income tax.
- The national sales tax proponents claim they'd manage to gather revenue even from illegal operations such as drug smuggling. More importantly as a tax on consumption rather than income it would be economically efficient. The claim is also asserted that such a system would be less invasive than our current tax collection process. Libertarians tend to prefer this option for what I think are obvious reasons and are joined by some conservatives in support of this system.
- Flat tax is seen by others as somewhat easier to implement and less disruptive. This view holds that the problems with income tax are more to do with its redistributive functions than the tax itself. Particularly pernicious to a democratic republic is excluding too large a group of people from the tax. They hold that while there would be some simplification from the sales tax route, you'll still wind up with invasive regulation by government. Given the risk is the abuse of government power the best remedy is to place all citizens equally at risk of the abuse rather than insulating a faction from it.