* Posts by John Robson

1841 posts • joined 19 May 2008

You're doing open source wrong, Microsoft tsk-tsk-tsks at Google: Chrome security fixes made public too early

John Robson
Silver badge
Facepalm

So MS think...

...that they are the only people to have tried such futzing?

That's quaint.

If they can discover the bug then so can someone else... To claim that there is nothing people can do when the source code is updated is also wrong. Most people won't compile a new version, but the option is there.

When MS release a patch to a subset of their OS versions then it announces the bug in older versions pretty reliably (and this is despite the lack of source code) and those people will *never* be protected, because they can't recompile a fixed version from the source...

0
3

Concerns raised about privacy, GDPR as Lords peer over Data Protection Bill

John Robson
Silver badge

I really hope this isn't what is written...

"it will make re-identification of de-identified personal data unlawful"

If you can reidentify it then it wasn't de-identified (whatever that means).

Even ignoring that I suggest that we at least need an exception for research/security analysis - else you can't tell if you have actually anonymised the data.

7
0

NASA readies its asteroid warning system for harmless flyby

John Robson
Silver badge

UTC <-> BST is pretty easy to deal with.

In the same way that UTC <-> EQT (or whatever it was) is fairly easy to deal with if you are in EQT.

If the asteroid was going to impact somewhere then by all means use that TZ, but add UTC in parentheses.

8
0

Equifax: About those 400,000 UK records we lost? It's now 15.2M. Yes, M for MEELLLION

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: What are your thoughts on...

"The problem is, the card is your proof, your data is still stored in a Database controlled by the government or outsourced to a company to run. That can still be hacked, data stolen, changed etc. Then used in countries that don't use your ID card."

If only we could have a system that allowed the data held on a card to be trusted. Say by a combination of digital signatures and encryption.

0
0

Footie ballsup: Petition kicks off to fix 'geometrically impossible' street signs

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Nope.

Waste of time/money?

Correcting a document published by government should not take a huge amount of money.

It doesn't need to go through the overpaid airbags in parliament, it can be entirely handled by one or two people at the relevant agency in about an hour.

4
1

Ghost in Musk's machines: Software bugs' autonomous joy ride

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Really??

"60g is survivable.

Its also an average across the 0.05 second time the car decelerates. At the first moment of impact, zero deceleration, zero G, the airbags have yet to be triggered, fired and inflate. Realistically the G it is going to spike to a much higher value. And in such a fast crash, if the car stops in four feet and 0.05 of a second, then by the time the airbag is fully inflated (say 45 milliseconds from the crash sensor being triggered to full inflation of the airbag), the initial impact is almost over. If it stops in five feet, the car's gone under more than half the trailer width and although the G force may be lower, the loadbed of the trailer's probably come through the windshield and connected with the driver's head as they flop forward on the seatbelt.

You get to the point where survival is a possible outcome"

Yes - but an F1 car comes to a stop from 150+mph in well under 4 feet fairly often (thankfully they are generally good enough drivers that it isn't *that* often, but it happens)

No airbags, although better restraints/HANS devices etc.

I'm not saying it's gone to a 'certain kill' to a 'will absolutely walk away from', but the chances of survival are dramatically better with than without.

2
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Really??

"You could more reasonably attribute the death to the lack of safety features required by law in US HGVs

I doubt that. JB's two tonne car was doing 74 mph when it hit the truck, it'd be a very impressive side under-run bumper that'd stop that. Even if it had, to avoid a similar fate, the vehicle has to stop in about four feet - which means that even if the bumper, the car body, and the airbags spread the deceleration evenly during the circa 0.05 seconds of the impact (which I doubt) then the driver would be subject to a minimum of about 60 G."

60g is survivable.

OK, they have better safety harnesses etc, but F1 drivers often walk away from 50g crashes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenny_Bräck came away from a 200+g crash, and returned to racing...

It wouldn't have prevented all injury, but it would have made a significant difference to the chances of survival (which were always ~0 without the bars). You take the collision down in speed over the first four feet and the A pillars would probably do more 'lifting' of the trailer, and get you even more deceleration time.

You get to the point where survival is a possible outcome - and not a completely fluke one either. That's even ignoring the fact that having something of substance at that height would also likely have been sensed by the radar systems...

17
2
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Really??

"If you have speech recognition, you would not call it a but if it didn't recognise every word"

I like what you did there ;)

"I would also contest whether that it was a bug. It was clearly sub-optimal(!) but a bug is where something has been programmed incorrectly."

That is also true, I've just got a vision of old film with people carrying a plate of glass across a road ;)

14
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Really??

"The Joshua Brown crash – driving at full speed into a clearly visible trailer – is arguably one such example as it “would never happen to a human being,” Hollander says."

Has he never been on the road?

There are *so* many cases of people driving into things that are perfectly visible (because there are very few things that aren't visible)

And of course Joshua Brown is another of those - that the human behind the wheel didn't brake in response to the trailer either. You could more reasonably attribute the death to the lack of safety features required by law in US HGVs.

34
2

Legacy clearout? Not all at once, surely. Keeping tech up to snuff in an SMB

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: One model of PC or laptop?

A short while ago Dell had docks you knew would be supported for years that worked across a load of different models. Not any more.

To be fair - If you consider the USB-C port to be a docking connector (which it pretty much is) then that era is returning - potentially with docker ports that are compatible between different vendor's products as well...

2
0

BBC Telly Tax petition given new Parliament debate date

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: If you have issues with the Telly Tax...

>>I have spent several years ignoring the TVL letters sent to me on a ridiculously frequent basis...

>If the frequency starts to bother you, just answer one. I now get just one email every four years which

>I think simply exists for people to perjure themselves should they get caught out.

I did answer one - hence ignoring the remainder.

That was after doing the online declaration as well...

0
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: If you have issues with the Telly Tax...

"There are proven non advertising based channels out there like Netflix and hbo. You need a TV to watch them but owning a TV in the UK is equated to needing a licence/watching the beeb."

No you don't...

You need a license to receive broadcast TV (Cable/Sattellite/Terrestrial) or iPlayer streaming.

Other streaming services do not need a TVL.

I have spent several years ignoring the TVL letters sent to me on a ridiculously frequent basis...

15
2

Rosetta probe's final packets massaged into new snap of Comet 67P

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Amazing!

Manœuvre nodes...

5
0

Computers4Christians miraculously appears on Ubuntu wiki

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Your point of understanding is wrong

Nebuchadnezzar didn't perform an experiment though, so you can't repeat it.

Interestingly there is a significant amount of scientific theory which we find ourselves unable to test, and yet seem to be defended religiously by people who don't understand them fully...

I'd suggest that the original premise (From my point of understanding : If a Deity truly existed there would be no need for religion..) is about as valid as "If democracy truly existed there would be no need for voting".

Religion isn't needed per se - a relationship doesn't *need* the structure of organised religion (I'm assuming that it's organised religion that is being objected to). However it's common for groups to form when they have a common interest/relationship, and it'd common for those groups to have a set of behaviours which reflects their common interests/relationship.

7
0

Vibrating walls shafted servers at a time the SUN couldn't shine

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: I call bull

Depends on the field strength, and on the memory type...

Strong enough field could easily induce currents that would basically scrap any data in RAM (or at least in flight to/from, which from the machines perspective is as good as flinching the RAM...

29
1

Nokia updates classic comeback mobe 3310

John Robson
Silver badge

Tethering (via BT) makes sense as a feature on a phone like this - even more important if 2G is actually going EOL at any time soon (I'm not holding my breath though).

I have had feature phones with tethering and they actually make a great deal of sense - because they enable a load of otherwise disconnected devices to connect up easily...

It's also financially advantageous to have just the one SIM.

17
0

So. Should I upgrade to macOS High Sierra?

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Backup server?

"I’d rather have a single, slender Thunderbolt 3 cable connecting my very thin desktop to a compact, quiet.RAID box"

I'd even run with a USB3 cable (and do actually for the Mac mini)... The data on there isn't 'hot', so USB3 works fine for the 5 drives...

2
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Backup server?

Mac mini with an external tower... Seems perfectly reasonable to me.

I must look at whether there is a time machine docker container available...

Ooh - yes, there are several. That's me sorted then (just need to decide on one)

HP Microserver, SSD for a base OS, now have three large HDDs, will add a fourth at some point. Going to use clusterFS and snapRAID on those...

Then everything gets containerised away to make life far easier than it would otherwise be...

4
1

Hotter than the Sun: JET – Earth’s biggest fusion reactor, in Culham

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Didn't they used to have a flywheel?

400MW from each flywheel, 575MW from the Grid feed...

Yep, 1.21GW is rather easily possible - we could add a third flywheel of course, that might do quite a good job, surely we can make it do 410MW?!

3
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Snake Oil

"Its always 20 years to success or anything near that since last few decades."

Depends on your definition of success...

Have you seen the list of spinoff technologies developed?

12
1
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Didn't they used to have a flywheel?

I recall them being described as the mass of a train (which looks a bit like an understatement actually) - but it looks like the time to spin up is 7 minutes, and to stop them takes 9.4 seconds... (ignoring operational losses)

That's pretty impressive, particularly when you think that the outside of the flywheel (and most of the mass) is travelling at 200+mph - probably not quite in the 'get to Reading and keep going' territory though (although if it was on rails....)

Operations are probably still scheduled around ad breaks in Coronation street though...

6
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Didn't they used to have a flywheel?

To help regulate the power draw from the grid - or am I imagining it?

I'm not...

Wikipedia suggests:

JET's power requirements during the plasma pulse are around 500 MW with peak in excess of 1000 MW. Because power draw from the main grid is limited to 575 MW, two large flywheel generators were constructed to provide this necessary power. Each 775-ton flywheel can spin up to 225 rpm and store 3.75 GJ. Each flywheel uses 8.8 MW to spin up and can generate 400 MW (briefly).

31
0

Shock! Hackers for medieval caliphate are terrible coders

John Robson
Silver badge

"Hear the one about the jihadi who went to see a pantomime? He pledged allegiance to Allahdin."

Oh no he didn't...

Oh yes he did...

Repeat as desired...

13
1

Don't panic, but.. ALIEN galaxies are slamming Earth with ultra-high-energy cosmic rays

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Life... Or"intelligent" life? Not the same thing.

And the mice...

15
0

Driverless cars will make more traffic, say transport boffins

John Robson
Silver badge

Rational conclusions

Still to come...

Any discussion of the reduced congestion from sane driving styles, and any discussion of people not owning as many cars (or any at all).

Sure taxi style services may mean more journeys, but it's impatient journeys that contribute disproportionately to congestion - and pointless journeys... would you still wait five minutes for a car when you could have walked to your destination?

3
4

Kebab and pizza shop owner jailed for hiding £179k from the taxman

John Robson
Silver badge

el Reg units...

Slacking again - I liked the reference to how many DUP votes each tax scam is worth...

3
0

AI slurps, learns millions of passwords to work out which ones you may use next

John Robson
Silver badge
Pint

Re: XKCD 4 John Robson

"My experience is that you first statement doesn't hold water like a collander doesn't. Gonna have to call shenanigans on that one. (on a train now, and had to retype parts of that first sentence four times due to motion-induced typos)."

Get off the train and into the pub man... it's beer O'Clock...

Realistically though... on a phone/tablet the dodgy character set is going to mean that most (certainly a clear majority of) characters will take two or more 'button presses' any of which could go wrong - I suspect the 'button push' count is actually more similar between the schemes than it appears. Actually even on a normal keyboard many of the characters rely on multiple presses.

I've not come across a better cartoon to illustrate the technique - if you know of some that are equally as good then feel free to link to them...

0
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: XKCD 4 John Robson

Typing a long string of common characters is, IME, easier than a shorter string of rare characters...

And I never claimed that XKCD was the originator of the idea, but the presentation there is quite accessible - and therefore a good source to point towards.

2
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Hashing and salt

"When salting a password to make the hash unique, the salt is something specific to your user profile - correct?"

Yes - it can even be your username.

The idea is to prevent the use of rainbow tables - because a password of 'Password1' can be hashed once, and then compared with all the other hashes in a table to see if anyone used that password.

If the password has the username slapped on the front then you need to hash 'AnonymousCowardPassword1', and that obviously won't be any use for any other user on that system.

You could improve the salt by using something else in the user profile (maybe the email address - so a userid/password list doesn't give you the salt) combined with the URL of the service being provided (so that a rainbow table only applies to this service)...

'Anonymous@coward.com|theregister.co.uk|Password1' - what's the use of that hash anywhere else?

3
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: XKCD

"Anyone else tired of XKCD for everything? (Ok I realise I should not have asked that)."

Yes - it's traditional though.

I will also defend myself slightly, I didn't say to use it for everything - I use it for things I need to type every so often, normally on devices without full keyboards (phones/tablets/games consoles/TV sticks etc).

It actually provides a decent level of 'non guessability'

My /usr/share/dict/words has >200k words, even if I exclude those under three characters (which isn't strictly necessary in this scheme.

So it's 200k^4 (1.6e21)

That's basically equivalent to the 256 bits of ASCII over 9 characters - and many of those characters aren't actually type-able. Let me assume that we are actually limited to chars 32 through 126 (95 chars) - then we need an 11 char password to match the 4 word scheme.

It's actually quite a good way of generating fairly easy to remember and type passwords which are hard for a computer to guess.

Now the issue comes if you try to choose the words yourself, because the average person may have a vocab of 80k words, but we only use ~5k in speech and ~10k when writing (Source - first google hit on the matter)

That drastically reduces the search space...

Or you could add a fifth word - and you add another 5 orders of magnitude to the search space, but it's still pretty easy to remember/type five words.

The key, as pointed out in the article is to prevent brute force attacks, by not leaking the salted and hashed password, and by rate limiting attempts.

5
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: XKCD

But beware of fake hacking tools being sold:

https://www.theregister.co.uk/2017/08/14/amazon_recalls_solar_eclipse_glasses/

0
0
John Robson
Silver badge

XKCD

correcthorsebatterystaple

That is all...

Or use a reasonably trusted automatic generator.

Since most of the time I let my machine log me into things (generally low value logins) I just let it use pseudo random garbage for passwords.

For those things I have to type I make a random selection of words (shuf -n 4 /usr/share/dict/words) and concatenate them - good for WiFi passwords etc, because easy to remember/type, hard to guess

Alternate login scheme

4
1

Google, Bing, Yahoo! data hoarding is like homeopathy. It doesn't work – new study claims

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Don't see their successes

"I don't define success as convictions for gun murders."

It would be a lesser type of success. But wouldn't you agree that a conviction for possession that prevented the murder would be a success?

Initially yes, but in the long term I would define success as even these prosecutions becoming vanishingly rare because the behaviour is eliminated. The obvious measure is reduction in murders...

Note that I don't say elimination, which would of course be ultimate success, but I doubt complete elimination is possible in even this relatively easy case (there are precious few reasons for people to have weapons - there is no reason for a sporting rifle/pistol to be outside of a locked box other than in a range).

0
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Don't see their successes

"To me, success is a conviction based on clear evidence"

Well, to me a success in this field is preventing 'bad thing' from happening.

There are plenty of mechanisms to do that, not all are convictions for the maximum offence.

If we policed the carrying of firearms reasonably strictly then we would expect to have a lower instance of public shootings. I don't define success as convictions for gun murders...

1
4
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Clowns at GCHQ and your pals, please take note!

"Recent events in London (and repeatedly for over a decade) show that the useless twits already know the terrorists in advance, but seem incapable of doing anything about it in a worrying large percentage of cases. "

Not that I disagree with you in any way - but you only see the ones they couldn't do anything about.

You don't see the people they manage to proactively stop 'doing something'. Furthermore those same agencies are never going to sing about those successes.

"Our successes are secret, you only ever hear about our failures"

3
5

NASA Earthonauts emerge from eight-month isolation in simulated Mars visit

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Tracking

To be fair - I'd probably take my own company with or without a book...

2
0

MPs accuse Amazon and eBay of profiteering from VAT fraudsters

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: El Reg units

"That's almost 15 DUP votes in tax revenue"

That's approaching harsh - but from so far away that you've got plenty of time to run with it...

0
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: I avoided VAT just last month

"and it's obviously not illegal. "

Really - I'm sot sure it's that obvious.

Pretty sure that if I pay cash for someone to do some work and get it 20% off then I am breaking the law as well as them...

1
1
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: VAT lost to HMRC and lost to the UK

Depends if the price was as it would have been with the VAT anyway (in which case 20% more money for the seller, but why would you buy from them specifically) or priced as if ex VAT (i.e. seller gets more profit due to more sales, but the UK consumer keeps the VAT to spend elsewhere (and 20% goes to HMRC).

The truth is likely somewhere in the middle, so 90% of the money will be escaping HMRC and the UK...

6
2

Five ways Apple can fix the iPhone, but won't

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Sound

>>and demonstrates confusion over things like nyquist frequency, and the accuracy of phase information in a sampled signal...

>I can't see how you came to that conclusion

For one you complained that at the nyquist frequency you can lose signal - which is never in question.

For another with a band limited signal there is no loss of phase information from sampling.

Monty goes over this with a square wave (including explaining about the effects of a low pass filter on a square wave), demonstrating the perfect replication of the signal, and the absolute reproduction of all phase information.

44.1k/16 bit is (more than) sufficient for the human ear. If you would like to come and take a double blind test against some super-dooper MHz sampling with MB depth then you are welcome to - I'll set one up with some of my hardware, and some of yours.

One of the main differences that people tend to hear is, as you rightly point out, the quality of the master being different for the two formats. But if you take a HiDef master and play that, as well as playing it through a ADAC at 44k/16 then you won't hear a difference (you'll need to apply a slight delay to the master signal in order to allow the A/B testing to not 'give the game away').

The quality of the DAC and the master have nothing to do with the limits of 44.1k/16 bit sampling - those limits are outside of the relevant ranges for humans.

1
0
John Robson
Silver badge

I don't have a battery life concern with my iDevices - but I agree that the modern trend for 'super thin' is daft, and that the trend for 'stupid thin but with this bulgy bit' is just ridiculous. Particularly if you then claim that you can't fit in a headphone jack when there is clearly room:

This guy fitted one

5
0
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Sound

"Finally, your hearing isn't linear, but PCM audio is. 16 bits is about 100 dB of dynamic range, but your hearing has about 130 dB of dynamic range, albeit with a non-linear response. You could use non-linear PCM to extend the same 16 bits over a wider range of amplitudes, but that means non-linear DACs, which are much harder to make than linear ones (and it can increase audible distortion where high-amplitude, but very low frequency, tones are overlaid with higher frequency tones - as often occurs in music). It's easier to just use more bits, and capture the full dynamic range of human hearing."

Ignoring the rest of your post, since it is talking about the mastering aspect of audio, which is where there is a benefit in higher sample rates - and demonstrates confusion over things like nyquist frequency, and the accuracy of phase information in a sampled signal...

Although you do seem unaware that even a 44k ADC will oversample like mad in the first phase, and then downsample afterwards, so that it can use a cheap digital filter with a far sharper cutoff than an analog filter could provide. Although I am really intrigued as to why you think that a correctly upsampled signal will 'lose' information...

PCM is linear, but it doesn't have a lowest signal of 1bit. You can quite happily encode a signal with an amplitude well underneath 1 bit with appropriate dither. This is demonstrated in the video linked above.

The other thing is that the ear isn't actually capable of 130dB range.

It is, but not rapidly. We actually use a much lower range than this because the muscles which adjust the effective amplification from the bones in the ear don't release quickly (similarly to the way it takes ages to get night vision, and no time at all to lose it).

17
1
John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Sound

"First, I can hear the difference. Yes, I have tried blind testing, "

Unless you've tried supervised double blind testing then there is no point in the conversation.

If you *can* tell the difference - then I'd love to set up a double blind test for you - I have the hardware to give you up to 24bit 48k...

47
8

The new, new Psion is getting near production. Here's what it looks like

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: I still like my Psion5mx...

I was positing the PiZero as an alternative to a USB-C <-> Serial adaptor (which would likely cost more...

Although, some of their dedicated little screens run off a USB power pack as well...

0
0
John Robson
Silver badge

I still like my Psion5mx...

I really ought to start using it more, but the lack of connectivity nowadays is a bit of a downer.

This device certainly looks very interesting, if there is a half decent USB-C -> Serial adaptor then I can see it being very useful.

Who am I kidding - it'll be cheaper to run a RPi ZeroW with serial over GPIO and bounce off that...

Still nice to have a keyboard whilst running around a data centre though.

4
0

London Tube tracking trial may make commuting less miserable

John Robson
Silver badge

This...

I have seen people take the tube from Warren Street to Goodge Street - I'm sure that the walking into/out of the stations is further than the distance between the stations.

The other one that gets me (now that I arrive at Euston) is the convoluted route to get to Euston Square - it's a short walk along Euston Road, or multiple changes on the tube, so which does TfL recommend?

10
0

Mo' money mo' mobile payments... Security risks? Whatever!

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: Bringing in biometrics, things get even riskier

You assume that the pin is the same between the two devices.

If I have to type a code into a device every time I open it, then it will be easy to type (and easy to find a time to watch me typing it).

If I only have to do it on reboot, or on failure of the biometric (maybe I've been in the bath and my fingers are all crinkly) then it can be significantly stronger, and will be less vulnerable to being overlooked.

It's not quite as simple as 'either pin or biometric' is inherently less secure than 'pin only'

0
0

Secure microkernel in a KVM switch offers spy-grade app virtualization

John Robson
Silver badge

I used to do this...

With four machines on different security domains.

I took a simple KVM switch and used the monitor as the 'second' screen for the important machines, and the Keyboard and mouse were switched with this second monitor (which was on the left of one machine, and the right of the other two - one machine only needed a primary monitor, test lab access).

Stuff I needed visible all the time was left on the other screens, and the KVM did it's (very simple) job of redirecting mouse/keyboard commands, and selecting one of a handful of video sources perfectly.

To move files from one device to another we used either USB/CD drives which went through a network isolated virus scanner between insertions or later an automated network based version of the same.

It didn't need a full blown micro kernel installed custom fiddle switch - it just worked as good access to multiple machines. A great deal cheaper than the 'solution' here I am guessing as well...

3
0

Scottish pensioners rage at Virgin cabinet blocking their view

John Robson
Silver badge

Presumably the pensioners don't need planning permission to install a window through the boxes then?

39
0

Smart cities? Tell it like it is, they're surveillance cities

John Robson
Silver badge

Re: citizen infractions of rules can be prevented?

>> citizen infractions of rules can be prevented

>There has to be a certain level of "slack" in rule enforcement in order for society to function.

>Another thing they talk about is "prevention". So, how would that work?

There doesn't actually - the rules just need to be well designed (a task I'd say is beyond the capacity of our legislative system most of the time).

Surveillance that can track, for instance, cars can be used to provide sane enforcement of various rules of the road which are there mostly for the safety of others (because drivers kill more non drivers than drivers - 44% of road deaths were vehicle occupants, some of whom will not have been driving (UK 2015))

That means that we could rigorously enforce appropriate speed limits, and traffic light violations, and tailgating, and mobile phone usage.

At the point where the risk of being caught engaging in a risky behaviour becomes significant... people stop doing it. So the system prevents the behaviour, by making people aware that they will be penalised for it.

This would then improve general road safety, and reduce the number of incidents where 'but for the grace of god' defences are rolled out in court. The penalties for the risky behaviour don't need to be high, but they ought to be progressive (so first offence is relatively 'cheap', but repeat offences become increasing 'expensive'*).

The key in terms of privacy is not to store the data on vehicles that are being well driven beyond the (short) time required to identify such behaviour [the only one that should need any storage is average speed detection].

* Not necessarily financially - maybe start with points/fine, then a 1 week ban, then 2,4,8...

1
12

Forums

Biting the hand that feeds IT © 1998–2017