* Posts by Paul Cooper

108 posts • joined 7 Mar 2007


Techie in need of a doorstop picks up 'chunk of metal' – only to find out it's rather pricey

Paul Cooper

Re: Mercury, and Titanium

In 1971, I had a pre-University job in the laboratories of the Coal Tar Research Association, now long defunct; the writing was on the wall when I was there, as coal tar is a by-product of the even then defunct coal gas industry. One of my tasks was tending a mercury still in the corner of the laboratory. This basically works by distilling mercury under vacuum. I hate to think how much mercury leaked out of it! I forget what we used mercury for, but distilling dirty mercury to recover it was part of our routine operations. That laboratory wouldn't have lasted five minutes in these H&S conscious days. After all, coal tar itself is pretty evil stuff, full of nasty carcinogenic chemicals. Of course, we handled it in the open laboratory, often heating it over open flames! We used solvents like toluene and trichlorethylene to clean things - both brought in by the 45 gallon drum! Of course, we were handling very hot equipment a lot of the time, so we wore asbestos gloves... And some of the procedures were downright dangerous - I have a scar to this day from an accident where I was lucky not to lose my little finger.

Paul Cooper

Re: Watch out for geological samples

The fly-ash from coal-burning power stations would probably count as low-level waste if it came from a nuclear power station. My own view is that I'd far rather live close to a nuclear power station than a coal-burning power station; the emissions from the latter are MUCH nastier! I recall that many years ago, a TV programme tested various household items for radioactivity, and it turned out that some teabags exceeded the level for low-level waste. And as you say, lots of the UK has a high background radiation level - it isn't just Cornwall, some of the Mesozoic shales also contain a lot of radon.

Paul Cooper

Watch out for geological samples

Back in about 1970, during that after the A-levels doldrum of school existence, I did a little extra-curricular work on atomic physics. The school had some licensed radiation sources, and a Geiger counter, so I did the various experiments in the book. Having exhausted the "official" experiments, I took it into my head to see what the various geological samples that an old boy had bequeathed to the school in the distant past did - I had noticed that one of them was pitchblende, and knew the story of Marie Curie. Turned out that the pitchblende sample was WAY more radioactive than the carefully stored and licensed radioactive sources were! I then spent an interesting day or so making a lead box for the sample!

Crash, bang, wallop: What a power-down. But what hit the kill switch?

Paul Cooper

Re: Quick

Los Alamos National Laboratory is in New Mexico; perhaps even Trump doesn't want to mess with people who build bombs!

Hold horror stories: Chief, we've got a f*cking idiot on line 1. Oh, you heard all that

Paul Cooper


I was once working on a dataset provided by some Spanish colleagues. It had been created in a totally different system from ours, and I was converting it for use in our systems - theirs was Microstation; ours was ArcGIS for those who know their GIS software! And as anyone familiar with the systems will know, the differences in representation between the two are enormous. Anyway, I'd been working on it for a while when I discovered that one class of features had been duplicated in a manner that meant I was going to have to manually select and delete several hundred features. At this point, I boiled over and yelled "Bloody Spaniards!" Unfortunately, at just this point, our Spanish colleague who was visiting passed by our work area... Fortunately, I think he had a sense of humour and ignored my outburst! We collaborated many times over the years after that and got on quite well, but I learnt that day to keep my mouth shut!

Leaky child-tracking smartwatch maker hits back at bad PR

Paul Cooper

Even when SA was enabled, the accuracy of GPS was not less than 50 metres. The 500 metre figure doesn't add up; no GPS could provide a position that bad!

Users fail to squeak through basic computer skills test. Well, it was the '90s

Paul Cooper

Re: Not sure...


Is your kid looking at GCSE in computer science? It's exam-only from 2022 – Ofqual

Paul Cooper

Re: "...programming skills assessed only via examination..."

In the late 70s, you pretty much HAD to program on paper; although we did have an interactive terminal (whoo-hoo!),you still had to edit things line-at-a-time, and you could only see a few lines at once. If you wanted an overview of your code, you had to keep a listing next to you, and constantly refer to it - usually making annotations on the paper as you went!

My usual development process then was to sketch a flow-chart, write the code, type it in and then test it - often on a live database as there wasn't any other kind!

Ooh, my machine is SO much faster than yours... Oh, wait, that might be a bit of a problem...

Paul Cooper

Re: A little different...

But Shared Common was a really neat way of handling byte operations to convert formats!

I'm just not sure the computer works here – the energy is all wrong

Paul Cooper

Re: Similar story

I can top that one - in 1987, I was part of a team doing a physics experiment on the Greenland ice cap. We were operating round DYE 3, which at the time was still operating one of the cold war early warning radars. Our job was to measure the topography of the rock beneath the ice using a 300 MHz radar (ice is pretty much transparent at that wavelength). The early warning radar was nowhere near our frequency - but we still suffered from MASSIVE interference effects; in particular, the A-D component we were using triggered at the wrong point several times during an acquisition cycle - fortunately, always at the same point, so I could post-process the data to correct it! And there were innumerable other effects; so much so that we had to line the electronics vehicle with tinfoil to get anything going at all. And the interior of the instrument caboose got incredibly hot - you wouldn't think that getting too hot would be a problem in Greenland, but it was! We operated up to 5 km from the base, and still suffered all sorts of strange interference effects.

The early warning radar did have waveguides the size of heating ducts, and there were parts of the platform that were out of bounds while it was operating; lead underwear wouldn't have saved you!

Um, I'm not that Gary, American man tells Ryanair after being sent other Gary's flight itinerary

Paul Cooper

SImilar names within an organization

In the organization I used to work for, the default email address was initial.surname@company. I was one of the very few who got firstname.surname@company because the initial version was already taken. However, there was also an address-munging system that would attempt to match any reasonable attempt at an email to a real person, so the other person and I routinely got each other's email. I did once get one promising me a rather large amount in expenses; sadly it only took me a minute or so to realize the money wasn't for me! There were several A Smiths; I presume they had the same problem, but of course don't know how they coped with it!

Which scientist should be on the new £50 note? El Reg weighs in – and you should vote, too

Paul Cooper

Re: I think it's time for a woman ...

I'm a geologist and have to say that calling Mary Anning a scientist is a bit of a stretch. She was a gifted fossil collector who happened to have the good fortune to live next to a good fossil locality where she carried on the family business (her father also collected fossils for sale). I'm not denigrating fossil collection - it is much harder than people think, and requires a good eye; I know this as I'm no good at it! But palaeontology only starts with fossil collection, which is pretty much where Mary Anning stopped. I'd say that she bears about the same relationship to palaeontology as the lab technicians did to Rosalind Franklin. If Mary Anning hadn't been female and hence noteworthy, I doubt we'd know she'd existed.

Clunk, bang, rattle: Is that a ghost inside your machine?

Paul Cooper

Re: Many values for true

I've mentioned it before but the IBM Fortran H optimizing compiler had a neat trick. If you wrote a loop with a rand function within the loop, and didn't change the argument of the rand function within the loop, the optimizing compiler carefully optimized the rand function outside the loop! So it became constant within the loop, which wasn't usually what you wanted.... It wasn't a very good rand function, but making it constant tended to produce odd results!

Attempt to clean up tech area has shocking effect on kit

Paul Cooper

Re: Why is it always the cleaners?

Typically, you get what you pay for.

If you hire the cheapest people available to do the cleaning, you will probably get the least capable, least interested people doing the cleaning. If you choose to pay a bit more, you stand the chance of having reliable interested people doing your cleaning.

Unfortunately, people who merit higher pay are also likely to get bored with a repetitive job that is the same every day and get creative...

New theory: The space alien origins of vital bio-blueprints for dinosaurs. And cats. And humans. And everything else

Paul Cooper

Earthly origins

Of course everything needed for life came from asteroids and comets - isn't that how the earth (and all the other planets) accreted in the first place?

A boss pinching pennies may have cost his firm many, many pounds

Paul Cooper

I'm afraid that this sort of thing is not uncommon in the wonderful world of academia. Grants often include the purchase of big-ticket equipment, services or whatever, but the smaller, routine items come from a general overhead account or even aren't budgeted at all. Training is the obvious one. I was fortunate and worked for an organization that recognized the necessity of training, but you could find that you'd got the money to buy a vastly costly piece of equipment and then struggle to get it installed! We often found ourselves moving heavy, awkward equipment using members of our (highly skilled) team. Fortunately, H&S abolished that activity, as it was recognized that using untrained and ill-equipped personnel to move heavy equipment wasn't the safest of things!

Trainer regrets giving straight answer to staffer's odd question

Paul Cooper

Back in the days when 1 Gbyte was a LOT of storage, we took delivery of two SCSI 1 Gbyte disk units for our brand new workstations. Plugged them in, and turned on the power to be rewarded with pop, crackle and expensive blue smoke. Turned out they'd been shipped set to 110V, and hadn't got voltage sensing PSUs! Fortunately the supplier acknowledged the mistake...

Apple web design violates law, claims blind person

Paul Cooper

Map and Goegraphic Information sites?

We had to think about accessibility when considering the sites we developed to display interactive maps, and took advice on it. Under UK law, there's a reasonability clause, so we could develop sites that were unusable for blind people, as long as any FUNCTIONALITY was duplicated in a text readable form. So, for example, if we'd provided directions, they had to be in text form as well as a line on the map. However, as we didn't provide anything of that kind, and as the data that was displayed was downloadable in standard database formats, there was no onus on us to make the basically inaccessible data accessible!

Grad sends warning to manager: Be nice to our kit and it'll be nice to you

Paul Cooper

Re: Sometimes it's the user

I had a colleague like that. His supreme moment was leaving some expensive equipment out on an ice-floe and finding later that another ice-flow had slid over the top of the first, reducing the equipment to a smear of plastic and metal.

A different colleague managed to jam an irreplaceable drill 6 feet down a hole in the ice - JUST too far for it to be dug out by hand!

Ecuador's Prez talking to UK about Assange's six-year London Embassy stay – reports

Paul Cooper

Re: "rape charges sound like bollock"

"Just because I'm paranoid doesn't mean they aren't out to get me!" Heller, Catch 22!

Hurrah! Boffins finally discover liquid water sloshing around on Mars

Paul Cooper

Re: That conclusion seems a bit fast to me

Well, there is plenty of Earth-based experience to back it up. Back in the 1980s, UK researchers (mainly at Scott Polar Research Institute) found similar evidence of lakes beneath the Antarctic Ice Cap. Lake Vostok was the big one, but many more lake candidates were identified. Of course, at the time the possibility of actually verifying that they were lake using drilling techniques was science-fiction! But there are plenty of ways of checking that the bright reflections are from a water layer:

1) Is the top surface smooth compared with surrounding areas?

2) Is the dielectric constant estimated from the strength of the echo compatible with water?

3) Is the combination of pressure (derived from the thickness of the ice column) and temperature (derived from knowledge of surface temperature plus estimates of geothermal heat flux) within the liquid part of water's phase diagram?

4) Is there a surface expression of the lake (not found until 1996 by SAR imaging)

Since then at least one of these lakes has been drilled and they are water bodies.

Finally, there's the question of what else could it be? It looks like water, it behaves like water and it's beneath a 2km column of (mostly) water!

I used to do this stuff for a living!

Boss helped sysadmin take down horrible client with swift kick to the nether regions

Paul Cooper

Not exactly fooling a client, but in the same ball-park!

I suppose every organization with a public face attracts its share of strange enquiries. I fielded some of them on behalf of our PR department. The best was someone who wanted to know when an iceberg had calved so he could verify a telepathic message from a penguin... (No, it wasn't Linus!)

My technique was to explain calmly and logically why we couldn't provide the information (length of Antarctic coastline, scale differences between penguins and humans, icebergs calving at all scales from things the size of small countries down to stuff you could use in a drink).

Tech team trapped in data centre as hypoxic gas flooded in. Again

Paul Cooper

A real fire risk

I once worked in a place that was the offsite store for many large organizations. Not just tapes - paper records of all sorts, too, as this was in the late 70s. The data were all VERY high-value things (though there was a serious temptation to walk down one aisle with a big magnet, as it held the records of a well-known sender of junk mail!). The warehouse must have been one of the most inflammable places in the area! It was protected by a MASSIVE halon system; the warehouse was just that - a warehouse with a vast volume, filled with racks full of paper many meters high, so the volume of Halon required was enormous - I recall cylinders taller than me, and many of them. I remember that we were solemnly warned that if the fire alarm went off, we had ten seconds to get out. I was on the call-out list for night-time alarms, and the few times I needed to attend, I was fervently hoping it wasn't a fire - which it never was! The worst was a piece of loose cardboard setting off the motion sensors (which were cutting edge, state-of-the-art intruder detection in those days), and the police insisted on being in first - I certainly didn't argue!

Oddly enough, when a Tesla accelerates at a barrier, someone dies: Autopilot report lands

Paul Cooper

Re: After the last childish outburst...

" No, I'm not talking about me - I'm talking about doctors"

I'm sorry, but you are WRONG! I know several doctors and nurses who work with terminally ill children - perhaps the hardest job in the medical world. Each and every one of them cares enormously when a child dies; so much so that some have breakdowns and have to leave that job. And that's when they know that the child is likely to die, have probably spent much time preparing parents and relatives for the death, and have worked hard to ensure that the child's passing is as peaceful as possible. Doctors and nurses do NOT become "immune" to the death of patients, unless they are totally unfitted to be in their profession - or possibly, even be members of the human race.

Fixing a printer ended with a dozen fire engines in the car park

Paul Cooper
Black Helicopters

I, for one, welcome our insectile overlords...

For several years, the fire alarm where I worked went off regularly during the summer months. Nothing to do with fire or smoke - the things were sensitive to thrips (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thrips), and as we were located near fields of wheat, they were plentiful! After a few summers of this, the fire alarm system was changed, as every alarm resulted in the building (with 400 employees) being evacuated, and the fire brigade turning up with blues and twos!

The helicopter icon is the nearest I can get to a Thrip!

T-Mobile owner sends in legal heavies to lean on small Brit biz over use of 'trademarked' magenta

Paul Cooper

And what if your name is Magenta?

A friend of mine - an artist - is called Magenta, and trades under that name. It really is her name, not something adopted for professional purposes! I really do fail to see how something as unspecific as a colour can be trademarked.

Don’t fight automation software for control, just turn it off. FAST

Paul Cooper

Re: Busy

I used to interact with colleagues around the world via email. There was one colleague in Australia with whom I had a long-lasting and intense (but polite) disagreement that lasted for several months. The disagreement was settled within minutes of our meeting face-to-face when we could interact directly. Electronic communications put a distance between people and remove normal social interactions, even using video links.

Paul Cooper

Re: Even in the extremely unlikely event that fully autonomous vehicles ever become viable

Very much +1. I can barely remember the time before I could drive - it's nearly 50 years since I passed my test - but my wife learnt much later in life, and she tells me that one of the things that she felt very strongly on passing her test was that if everything went pear-shaped, she could live in her car if necessary. Cars aren't just transport, they tend to become very much part of our personal space.

My PC makes ‘negative energy waves’, said user, then demanded fix

Paul Cooper

For many years I worked for a boss who was left-handed. I rapidly learnt to use a mouse left-handed!

I couldn't give a Greek clock about your IoT fertility tracker

Paul Cooper

Re: It sounds more fun than real camping

No, REAL camping means digging a flat spot in the snow on the glacier for your tent, making sure the poles are well embedded so it won't blow away in a gale and remembering not to collect snow for drinking water from near the red flag that marks the area used for other functions! Other horrors include living on preserved food, and cooking on a primus (gas doesn't work in the cold) in a double walled tent (what could go wrong with that?)

The good news is that few other organisms are daft enough to even TRY to survive in those conditions!

Before anyone takes me TOO seriously, a well-known aphorism amongst polar scientists is "Any fool can be uncomfortable in a tent!"

Doctor finds physical changes to astronaut's eyes after ISS stint

Paul Cooper

Re: Internal eye pressure

I actually prefer the contact tensometer test - for me (used to wearing contact lenses) it is more comfortable!

10 PRINT "ZX81 at 37" 20 GOTO 10

Paul Cooper

Not a ZX81, but I did program a Z80 based single card computer with very similar memory limitations and NO Basic or OS of any kind! As I was doing real-time data logging, I got very familiar with the vagaries of the Z80 interrupt system, and have ever since been very aware of how little memory you actually NEED to do quite advanced tasks.

I also used BBC B Micros quite a lot - the trick of using REM statements to enter assembly code is one I remember!

Euro Space Agency probe begins search for guff gas on Mars

Paul Cooper

On Earth, where we know there is life, the default source of all hydrocarbons is life-related. There are inorganic routes to produce methane, but the volume produced is not likely to be high, and also is unlikely to be trapped in the rock. Even deep hydrocarbons (the ones the original AC is talking about) are probably formed by microbes living in the rock at depth. Shale gas is formed directly from biogenic organic matter in the shale - shale usually has a high organic content, so much so that some shales in the UK are used for brick making because the organic content is high enough to require little additional fuel. Indeed, shales are likely source rocks for hydrocarbon deposits! The organic content in all these cases is biogenic.

The point of Martian methane is that if it isn't associated with volcanic structures, it is a pretty good smoking gun for biological processes here and now, not millions of years ago.

KFC: Enemy of waistlines, AI, arteries and logistics software

Paul Cooper

Unfortunately, updating map databases tends to be VERY labour intensive, as any change can require very extensive QA checks to ensure the integrity of the whole database. It took the regular sat-nav databases for the UK about 2 years to include the newly built road on which I live - and Google Maps still hasn't got it after 6 years!

Further, it would be impossible to react in real time to temporary speed limits such as those imposed by road works - which might only be there for a few hours, or even be constantly moving in the case of works such as renewal of white lines etc.

There will always be a need for some sort on local indication of speed limits etc., so as to cope with these situations.

Roses are red, are you single, we wonder? 'Cos this moth-brain AI can read your phone number

Paul Cooper

Obligatory XKCD


‘I crashed a rack full of servers with my butt’

Paul Cooper

Problems in polar regions

Well, the worst situation I ever encountered wasn't in a purpose-built computer room. This was back in about 1983, and I had developed a system to log radar data from an airborne ice-penetrating radar for use in Svalbard. State of the art at the time - an S100 bus Z80-based single card computer! No OS, of course; everything had to be programmed in Assembler, and my development system was an Osborne 1 with Wordstar, asm and link - remember them? All was well in the office in Cambridge, but of course, it wasn't quite as we wanted it when we went off to the polar regions, so we took the development system with us. No problem - the Osborne 1 was (just about!) portable.

Unfortunately, the room we worked in had a nylon carpet, and of course, the humidity in the polar regions is extremely low. It was so bad that every time we brushed against a metal filing cabinet next to the door, we got a serious spark - enough to sting! It took a few goes for me to remember to touch metal BEFORE touching the keyboard of the Osborne 1; if you didn't the poor little thing just died. Fortunately, the whole setup was such that I always saved stuff (to floppy discs!) at regular intervals.

Forget cyber crims, it's time to start worrying about GPS jammers – UK.gov report

Paul Cooper

Carrington Event

In the 19th century, there was a massive solar flare, known as the Carrington Event. It fried telegraph systems! A far lesser event a few years ago knocked out power grids in the Eastern USA and Canada. If an event of the magnitude of the Carrington event happened today, it would fry at least a proportion, if not all, of the GNSS satellites in orbit. NASA, on their page about the Carrington Event, simply state that it is completely impractical to protect orbital hardware against an event of that magnitude. We'd get a few hours notice of such an event; possibly a bit longer if we were very clever at predicting events in the solar atmosphere. During such an event, you can forget about any low power transmissions from satellites getting through, so at the very best, you'd lose GNSS for a period of hours to days.

Evidence from ice cores suggests that such events happen with a frequency of around 100+ years.

Sysadmin crashed computer recording data from active space probe

Paul Cooper

I guess that every data manager on earth has suffered that awful moment when you realize you shouldn't have pressed return on the command you just entered and that you've lost some large amount of work that will take a day or so to recover? Particularly if you're used to an OS like windows that doesn't REALLY delete stuff until you clear out the recycle bin, and suddenly remember you're in the less forgiving environment of Unix or VMS! It's even worse when you're using some GIS data formats where the basic unit of data is the contents of a directory, and messing with any part of those contents can irretrievably (well, almost) damage the entire dataset (yes, old and hoary users like me do know ways to reconstruct the data, but it isn't for the beginner and is error prone!). Or an SQL "Delete" command with autocommit on and an untested "where" clause that doesn't do what you thought it did...

Container ship loading plans are 'easily hackable'

Paul Cooper

This report (https://www.gov.uk/maib-reports/listing-flooding-and-grounding-of-vehicle-carrier-hoegh-osaka) shows the causes of the grounding of a car and truck carrier. The grounding was caused by a combination of a) inaccurate recording of the weight of vehicles loaded and b) failure of the system for measuring the contents of tanks, resulting in the officers relying on adding and subtracting weight as the contents changed. The latter is subject to errors well-understood by most here and resulted in the figures being used bearing little relationship to reality.

Basically, how could a hacker cause more problems than arise without malice anyway?

User asked help desk to debug a Post-it Note that survived a reboot

Paul Cooper

Way back, when we used BBC Micros with a Z80 board to run CP/M, the connection between the BBC and the monitor tended to be a bit shaky. Despite me saying again and again "check the monitor connection" I STILL got called about 2-3 times a week to point out to someone that the monitor cable had come loose! That was in the mid 80s; nothing changes!

Someone liked dwarf planet Haumea so much they put a ring on it

Paul Cooper

Re: Hal Clement fans!

Well, yes, I knew all that - but the images are just like the images Clement published in his essay on Mesklin.

Paul Cooper

Hal Clement fans!

Did anyone else think "Crikey, they've found Mesklin?"

They've only gone and made a chemical-threat-detecting ring

Paul Cooper

Whatever happened to Unicorn Horn?

Forget trigonometry, 'cos Babylonians did it better 3,700 years ago – by counting in base 60!

Paul Cooper

Re: We use base 10 for a reason

I did O-levels (pre GCSE!) in the good old pounds, shillings and pence days. I had to learn how to add, subtract, multiply and divide sums in pounds, shillings and pence. However, the only sensible way to do compound interest calculations was to convert to pounds and decimals of a pound, do the calculation, then convert back! However, there were a lot of useful hacks for less demanding arithmetic, some of which I can still remember - the dozen rule, for example (things were often sold in multiples of 12 in those days, so knowing that the price of 12 items in shillings = price of one item in pennies was very useful), the score rule (same in shillings and pounds), and several others I've now forgotten!

Lottery-hacking sysadmin's unlucky number comes up: 25 years in the slammer

Paul Cooper


Unless the system used a genuine source of randomness (e.g. the noise from a diode as in ERNIE in at least one of his incarnations), it was using a PSEUDO-random number generator. If he knew the algorithm and the seeding source, he might have been able to predict the "random" number sequence - at worst, by replicating the code and simply running it with appropriate inputs! The fact he was able to replace the random number generator suggests that it was indeed only pseudo-random.

There's also the issue that some pseudo-random number generators are badly designed and in fact produce predictable sequences; certainly predictable enough to skew the statistics of a random draw well away from the expected probabilities, making it worth spending money on buying numbers that are more likely to appear than true random selection would suggest.

Why, Robot? Understanding AI ethics

Paul Cooper

Ways round Asimov's rules

Asimov himself recognised that a robot (i.e. strong AI) could be made to circumvent his laws in several ways:

1) Alter the internal definition of a human so that some classes of human are excluded. This is explored in "The Naked Sun", where there are attempts to kill Lije Bailey by persuading a robot that he is not fully human on the basis of prejudice against Earth humans. There was a recent study showing that current "AI" systems are biased in just this manner because of the preponderance of white faces online!

2) Engineer a situation where a robot in an unmanned vehicle does not comprehend that a vehicle CAN be manned. Again, explored in "The Naked Sun"

3) More weakly, First Law can be circumvented by daisy chaining actions each of which is innocuous but which have a fatal cumulative effect. Again, two scenarios (one succesful) in "The Naked Sun".

Breaking news, literally: Newspaper's quakebot rumbled for fake story

Paul Cooper


Looks like the Y2K bug has bitten, 17 years late!

First-day-on-the-job dev: I accidentally nuked production database, was instantly fired

Paul Cooper

Re: There are two types of people in this business

Amen! There have been a few occasions I have had that awful feeling a moment after hitting return that I really shouldn't have done that... Fortunately, all recoverable either from backups or at the cost of a couple of days redoing stuff!

The biggest British Airways IT meltdown WTF: 200 systems in the critical path?

Paul Cooper
Black Helicopters

Re: Management

Mine only has two buttons - a power switch and a volume control. The rest is all touch screen. I suppose that most Management types can manage to understand two buttons... But then, I always was an optimist!

Huge flying arse makes successful test flight

Paul Cooper

Things that look like bums seem to be common around here! My daughter always refers to this as the Bum Tunnel: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/7e/Weston_Hills_Tunnel_2007-09-23.jpg


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