Press Ctrl + S to Save Yourself Against this Exploit
There’s a very simple mitigation against this exploit, already built right into (almost) every terminal (and terminal emulator) since the first (physical) one: Flow Control.
Just press Ctrl + S before entering sensitive information into a terminal, and press Ctrl + Q when done.
For improved usability, avoid using this with non-sensitive information, like regular UNIX commands. Only use for passwords, and perhaps secret file/directory names on a web server.
What happens is that the terminal queues your input between those two keystrokes, and sends it all at once, obliterating any timing information. Ctrl + S and Ctrl + Q are themselves not sent over the wire.