Had something similar here: experienced a sudden drive failure a while back and *all* my data got trashed despite having two (!) forensic images of the old drive the replacement did not work and I could only access about 1/3 of the library including several films despite the files being intact.
I did eventually find out that the problem mysteriously fixed itself about a week later, just as my other backup copy showed up on drive *3 (made in 2015) and fortunately this time all was well again.
But having to use forensics tools to clone a drive because companies don't recognise a simple HDD swap with working OS is ridiculous.
Why the $Deity Apple don't just let you burn your library to BD-R and authenticate it against the user account not the hardware I will never know. 30p per disk and they last 25 years minimum.
Also relevant: some early Macbooks have the infamous motherboard fault where "good" drives will not show up yet the data is normally intact.