Re: Only 3%?
Cyril Northcote Parkinson's "condensed version" of his Law "That work expands so to fill the time available for its completion" is famous, perhaps, less so is "bureaucracies expand over time" published in the 1950s.
A personal thought is that the public service is unfairly maligned for having too many "who do nothing but fiddle about with PowerPoint and attend meetings" the truth is that all large organizations become infested with these people - Particularly when they are natural privately owned monopolies or oligopolies - Organizations that have been privatized to rentier capitalists could be good examples.
I have noted that when a headcount reduction is applied, usually to increase bonuses for the C-Level and Boards, the PowerPoint/meeting crowd are often spared (Perhaps because they "look busy"?) whereas the essential customer-facing and technical staff are disproportionately hit. This can work well in times of employment stress, but fails when there are reasonable opportunities, as the staff who are keeping the business running leave for something better paid/less stressful.