Re: Start with the basics and work from there
That was done about a quarter millennia ago.
Correction, that was dictated about a quarter millenia ago, when international operations were exceedingly difficult to manage because of transportation speed/cost and the snail pace communications systems. The world has changed and governments, having lost the respect of the people, are not in a position to dictate.
So, given the world today, and the waste in existing governmental spending, define fair?
in turn the country could afford to build and maintain roads, hire police forces to prevent highway robbery, educate the populace and later to provide things like healthcare and pensions
Which neatly accounts for about 10% of the tax take. The rest they fritter away and waste.
You're confusing emotional irrelevancies, such as the public services you'd like someone else to fund for you, with what is fair or even realistic to expect companies to pay. A given company may have shareholders in 200+ countries around the world - how much do you think they value public spending in, for example Ireland, if they live in Uganda?
Companies decided that they could find and exploit loopholes and not pay their taxes, and all of a sudden are competing on how little tax they can pay. If you were defining "unfair" then this is probably it.
Unfair would better be defined as forcibly extracting from someone, using menaces, threats of impriosonment, and life altering sanctions, that which they would otherwise not give voluntarily. Which is the basis of all taxation.
What is fair about asking a company headquartered in say America, to pay taxes for services you wish to enjoy but otherwise cannot afford in the UK? What is fair about asking their global shareholders to pay for it? Sorry, but you haven't arrived at anything remotely resembling a working definition of fair, and so cannot use it for a predicate to raise taxes.