Re: "Imagine, if you will, a new Android phone....location data..."
Dan55 correctly noted, "...if you can find the location permission toggle for Play Services on Android 8."
Yes, it's called the Power Switch. :-)
I wonder if there are other approaches, such as Airplane Mode.
Push comes to shove, disable your GPS. Delete a critical driver file, or cut a trace. Or use a burner phone. Or leave your phone at home.