poor data management
Last time I dealt with Oracle licencing it was a joke. We were presented with a bill for £200K, my boss would have paid it (as it was each year) but ran it past me to check, the software listed was years (if not decades) out of date, no longer in use and no longer supported. We refused to pay the bill and Oracle could not even provide a list of what we'd bought in the last few years. They kept ringing demanding payment but could not provide a correct invoice. In the end we gave them a list of what we used after performing an internal audit. The bill came to £80K. The following year they sent us the old list and a bill for £200K+ so clearly they hadn't updated their database, and again new licences purchased since were not listed. Needless to say we sent them the list again with changes for that year and paid the lesser amount. They didn't seem to care as long as you paid them something.