Bingo! We have a winner. If VW would have spent that US$4B paying their way through the various US crooks, er I mean congresspersons by making bribes, I mean offering lobbyist "gifts" on K Street in good old Washington DC, they could have done so MUCH MORE!
From knowledge of the case where Sirius Satellite Radio was trying to merge with failing XM Satellite Radio, it costs about US$6K per "Representative" to influence their vote for what should be a typical business transaction.
At that rate, spending US$4B would net you well over 600,000 "influences" with US "Representatives." In other words you could "influence" the US Congress over 6,000 times and still have change left!
This is about grabbing some free money, NOT about having clean air. Ask what's left of the EPA, if you think otherwise, muggles. Clean air is on hold for the foreseeable [sic] future, thanks to a new bunch of crooks who conveniently choose what science they think is real, and what isn't. Very possibly based on an old man with a shitty baseball hat and a divining rod and a giant decision wheel where a dead chicken makes the call. (see: South Park)
All VW did was get caught out in what every other car manufacturer only wishes they could do; make it look like dirty diesel engines are not blowing out huge plumes of exhaust, when that's what most do after some time in service, or rather not getting enough service, as most car owners are apt to do. See for yourself: