Re: "what it is that makes us human when computers and machines can educate themselves"
"I've yet to see a human "learn" chess without being given the ruleset ... "
But: what about inventing chess, etc ?
I have yet to see a computer system invent something new - in other words show the ability of creativity, of original thougt. (Random errors from buggy code or malfunctions do not count.)
Now that would be AI.