Re: Existing Standards
Nothing to do with patents. It's mainly because the Japanese system relies on other banking, authentication and payment infrastructure that is unique to Japan. To transport such a system to Europe or the USA would require such major changes that you may as well start afresh. The air interface and terminal is a very small part of any contactless payment scheme.
As for the "threat" of Japanese action against NFC, have a look at the membership list of the NFC Forum, it's here: http://nfc-forum.org/about-us/our-members/ Not only are there lots of Japanese names there, but Sony was one of the three founder members of NFC (with Nokia and Philips/NXP)