I'm one of the people caught up in this due to my security clearance. I don't see the Chinese, if they really are the actors involved, using this for financial gain. Crossing fingers. Just being able to identify individuals who may be agents of the US is probably enough gain. Now if a "spy" gets killed or suddenly we wake up to fraud against our accounts, then you can say harm has occurred.
It might be nice to be able to file a claim against the US government. Hell, given that the VA did the same with my records, I'd have two claims, even ignoring other incidents (and that my identity has already been stolen at least once). However, no matter what the outcome, I can't see the US government being able to sufficiently tighten safeguards as to make a difference. Fines against government agencies do not result in altered behavior. To them, it isn't real money.