back to article The Next Big Thing in Wi-Fi? Multiple access points in every home

Faultline suspects there is going to be a patents battle in Wi‑Fi mesh software. The reason this is important is because of a second suspicion: that operators around the world will move lock, stock and barrel to multiple Wi-Fi Access Points in each home, potentially doubling or even trebling the number of devices in next …

  1. Lee D Silver badge

    It's nothing to do with the article, but I had to explain wireless meshing, nearby networks, etc. to my boss once.

    The analogy I used was a party.

    If you all talk at a normal volume, you can hear people near you. If you need to talk over the background music, though, or one person then can't be heard because they're outside the room and yelling, then people nearby will talk louder. Which makes the people around them need to talk louder still. And so on. Eventually, you have a deafening din with everyone at max volume trying to be heard.

    Proper adaptive wireless equipment takes a different route. It says "Shush everyone" at regular intervals, and speaks only at the volume needed to talk over the background noise, even if that means some people are silenced or have a very limited range. It's like a dinner party rather than a rave.

    So no, Mr Boss, just "ramping everything up to full power" doesn't solve your wifi problems, it just makes them worse. In fact, the bigger problem is making sure that everyone speaks the same language enough to understand the "Shush everyone" command, which usually means all using the same manufacturer/models of wireless point.

    1. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      I had to explain wireless meshing, nearby networks, etc. to my boss once.

      I had to explain something very similar to my manager too. I just told him that it was magic and that we had a team of elves in the basement that made it all work. He seemed fine with it.

    2. chasil

      Tomato WDS

      The Tomato Linux distribution for MIPS and ARM routers is already able to do this.

      The AP + WDS mode is used to slave the MAC addresses of the master and slave nodes.

      https://learntomato.com/choose-wireless-bridge-mode-tomato-network/

      https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Tomato_Firmware/Installation_and_Configuration

      I'm a big fan of the Shibby Tomato Bandwidth Limiter feature - it's the easiest way that I know of to keep Windows 10 bandwidth usage under control. Runs well on an old, cheap WRT54G.

  2. disgustedoftunbridgewells Silver badge

    If Comcast's support people can control wifi following a script, surely software would be able to do a better job automatically?

    Also Sky Q has mesh wifi using the miniboxes ( although I believe there's also a future plan to use powerline as a backhaul - the hardware supports it ).

    1. Tim Jenkins

      Sky Q TV hardware certainly has its own PowerLine built-in; it's even enabled by default on the main box (the one with the satellite feeds and hard drive), but for reasons only known to themselves, it's still not officially supported on the Q Mini boxes 18 months after Q was released, and there have been some suggestions in the Q user forums that it doesn't play nicely on the same mains circuits as other PowerLine kit. Intrepid users can enable it via a 'hidden' menu, though, and in some cases it does seem to help fill in for inadequate WiFi links.

      1. disgustedoftunbridgewells Silver badge

        It's my understanding that the Q mini box can use powerline for streaming the video, but not yet as a backhaul for the wifi hotspot.

    2. strum Silver badge

      >If Comcast's support people can control wifi following a script, surely software would be able to do a better job automatically?

      Surely the script kiddie next door will be able to play merry hell with my WiFi?

      1. Anonymous Coward
        Anonymous Coward

        No more than the technically savvy paedophile with your kids...

    3. ChrisBedford

      If Comcast's support people can control wifi following a script, surely software would be able to do a better job automatically?

      Yeahhhh... if Comcast's support people are anything like the average ISP support person in South Africa, this won't work. Not by a l-o-o-o-o-o-o-o-n-g, long shot. The mind boggles at the thought, in fact, of an ISP call centre agent managing even the simplest home "mesh".

      Also... these things are "tiny devices plugged into the wall", right? Getting signal from... ethernet over power, I assume? Yeah, works great as long as you only have single phase power in the house, and you only want 11 Mb/s or slower (not much good for streaming hi res video).

  3. Anonymous Coward
    Anonymous Coward

    "[...] where it decides whether 2.4 GH or 5 MHz is best for the client."

    Is 2.4GHz viable for such a use of wi-fi?

    I have given up using wi-fi in the house due to the number of WAPs that are visible. There are 23 SSIDs at a minimum of 2 bars (out of 5) signal strength. Many of them appear to be theoretically high bandwidth connections to cable suppliers.

    Not to mention microwave ovens - or other devices that use a nominal 2.4GHz for communication.

    1. Baldrickk Silver badge

      Only 23?

      It's fairly quiet where I live now, but I used to be able to pick up 137 access points...

      1. Version 1.0 Silver badge

        Re: Only 23?

        It's going to be fun watching these systems duel it out in high-rise developments. It could have the additional "feature" that, once they become widely distributed, many of the current generation of AP's will see a significant decline in performance...

    2. bombastic bob Silver badge
      Pirate

      "I have given up using wi-fi in the house due to the number of WAPs that are visible"

      here's what you do:

      a) pick a channel that nobody else is currently using.

      b) stream continuous iperf traffic between two connected wireless devices for at least 2 solid days, witihout letting up. Get the bandwidth up as high as possible. Locate the devices strategically, so popular client locations are "covered"

      c) when the neighboring access points all (autmatically?) change channels to avoid YOU, you'll have the entire channel block to yourself, at least for a while. 2.4Ghz needs 1 or 2 clear channels next to you (due to the modulation), so don't use 6. 10 or 2 is often a good choice [at least in the USA]. At 5Ghz, you can have adjacent channels since the 'A' bandwidth is higher than 'G'.

      And then, rinse/repeat as often as needed to keep your bandwidth working well.

      (it also helps to ask people what channels their on, to avoid obvious conflicts, or just scan the ones with more bars using a utility that tells you the channel and other info)

      also turn off "greenfield" and enable B-style preambles (CTS etc.). This helps multiple wifi networks play well with each other. As well as can be expected, anyway...

      1. This post has been deleted by its author

      2. martinusher Silver badge

        WiFi Channels

        Although the ISM band - the 2.4GHz used by most routers -- is divided up into channels they don't actually exist in a real sense because the modulation used by WiFi spreads across about a third of the band. (So you get three usable frequencies in the US, maybe four in Europe and Japan.) The problem you as an end user has with WiFi is that you don't get interference in a traditional sense, you just lose bandwidth, something you may not notice unless you're transferring files or streaming. Wireless networking shares the medium by slicing it up in time but the protocol isn't very efficient when the network gets congested, hence the collapse of throughput.

        I tend to cheat at home. I put Cat5 cabling in years ago which runs our computers and high bandwidth entertainment devices, leaving wireless for less critical / more bursty applications. I'm not sure whether beam shaping or other technologies will have disguised the shortcomings of WiFi by now -- its the sort of thing that works well in the lab not not necessarily at home -- so the idea of having low power APs distributed around sounds like a decent solution provided they use a clean backhaul (cable, preferably) and not the store and forward repeater functionality built into the protocol.

    3. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Of course you could just use Band B on a 400 quid access point your employer gifted you cos POE blew on it. No licence required and where I live noone else is on it at all. I consequently have no issues whatsoever with WiFi!

    4. Jamie Jones Silver badge

      Anonymous coward sees 23 AP's on 2.5Ghz, so it must be unusable for everyone.

      I can currently see 2 other than my own, if there was more than 4, I'd think there was a geek event going on nearby.

      1. Lee D Silver badge

        bombastic bob - you know that there are really only three "channels" on 2.4GHz (at least in most countries that can't use channels 13/14), don't you? All the rest overlap such they they interfere with each other. Blasting someone off one will just shove them into the other two, making them busier and they'll pop back on your channel pretty damn quick.

        5GHz is better but mainly because you have to play nicely with other channels to be part of the spec and be a certified device (hence the debacle over firmware modification where manufacturers are basically required to take control from you over such things and provide only a limited interface). DFS is that 30-second delay listening out for a clear channel before transmitting (which is why 5GHz comes up after 2.4GHz when you first turn on your router), and they have to play nicely.

        As such, all your "trick" does it make people bounce around the other channels more, while yours is similarly trying to bounce around the same channels, i.e. counter-productive. And though you can lock it to one channel, that's pretty pointless as you then have no way to select the better channels as and when they arrive.

        Rather than play games you don't understand, try not using a shared medium and treating it like you own it.

    5. ChrisBedford

      Is 2.4GHz viable for such a use of wi-fi?

      Certainly it is

      Not to mention microwave ovens

      Umm I don't think you get enough leakage from microwaves to affect your WiFi. They are after all very carefully shielded against radiating.

      I have recently installed a Ubiquiti UniFi mesh which covers both 2.4 and 5 GHz and it works very very well. Costs a "bit" more than conventional WiFi access points / repeaters but by golly it's worth it when you have a large number of people and difficult geography to support. The management software is great, and gives some fascinating insights into what's going on in and around the house.

      In this particular scenario (a rambling two-storey guest house catering for up to 19 transitory and 3 permanent users) there are 6 access points, 5 upstairs and one on the ground floor, providing fantastic, seamless coverage. No latency, just smooth coverage (not a lot of enter-device traffic, it's pretty much all device-Internet). Most devices that aren't iPads, iPods, or MacBooks use the 2.4 GHz band.

      Here's the astonishing part: at any given time there are 100+ (yep, over a hundred) visible APs in the neighbourhood. This is an ordinary suburb in Cape Town, not high-rise, not even high density cheek-by-jowl housing. OK, only the UniFi software can show me those SSIDs, and obviously many of them are unusably weak, but still... over a hundred, and zero noticeable interference.

      I had another customer near the International Airport - right by the runway threshold - and conventional WiFi just didn't work. As someone else mentioned here, turn up the power and you only make a small difference for a short while. Installed one of these meshes and it was like night and day.

      1. string

        > Umm I don't think you get enough leakage from microwaves to affect your WiFi. They are after all very carefully shielded against radiating.

        My old microwave used to knock out the wifi without fail. You've got to remember that 1000W microwave only has to leak 0.1% of it's energy to equal your 1W wifi access point.

  4. bombastic bob Silver badge
    Meh

    messing with meshes

    I messed with mesh networks a while back. I forget the details, but it was overrated (in my viewpoint) for wifi.

    You could PROBABLY provide the same _kind_ of thing by enabling 'roaming' on the clients, and setting up wireless "extender bridges" at various (strategic) points. They'd have 2 radios in each one, one that's connected to the base station on one channel, and acting like a router/AP on the other, and maybe have better radios and/or better antennae to keep the bandwidth as high as possible. Client roaming would handle best signal, etc. on the individual computers and devices, and everybody would "get along".

    Then you won't have to run something like "BATMAN" on every device on your network...

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.A.T.M.A.N.

    [as I recall, you needed it on the clients, too]

    Anyway I haven't messed with it in quite a while, so maybe those problems were solved? Most of what I did was on the wifi access point itself, and not so much the networking. Got a proof of concept working, then the project was presented for a defense contract by "the boss", and that was the end of it. bummer, yeah.

    (I suppose in some ways IPv6 is a lot like BATMAN's mesh network routing stuff, so why not go full-blowin IPv6 and be done with it!!!)

    1. Anonymous Coward Silver badge

      Re: messing with meshes

      Yes, yes, yes. Wireless repeaters are readily available. In my experience, they're universally shit though.

      However, what this article seems to be about is having such repeaters automatically choosing the best channels, factoring in neighbours etc. And giving remote techs the means to monitor/adjust them as needed. Like noticing that one repeater has poor backhaul to your router, so although the client is connected to the extended wifi nicely, they get crap throughput.

      1. psychonaut

        Re: messing with meshes

        repeaters are shit. agree.

        i have started using and installing ubiquiti long range dual band with ethernet backbone, or in extreme cases, home plug backbone, just run the cable up the outside of the house if neccesary (mine go through my office ceiling but im not picky about looks )to the loft through the soffits. sit the ap's in the loft attached to the rafters. you dont even need to drill through the ceiling. i have a large sprawling house and i only need 2. i use an ethernet backbone and get 230mb/s (which is what i get at the router) pretty much everywhere. the AP's talk to each other and can steer your device to the correct AP - no more of this hanging on to a really out of range AP nonsense, or different network SSID's for different rooms. just one proper continuous network everywhere. it is amazing, and there is no substitute (for £cheap it costs. ap's are about £120 each. no doubt you can do better with £k's worth of kit, but for the price they are fab)

    2. tim292stro

      Re: messing with meshes

      So it looks like my plan to make every room in the house a Faraday cage and drop an ac-AP in each room is going to mean my house is the only one on the block with decent WiFi bandwidth in every nook? Bad enough I have to put my cable modem in a Faraday cage to keep it from eating up my channels.

      Mesh APs are still not a panacea for crap WiFi performance. It's not just signal strength that matters, but signal integrity - if everyone in the room is shouting as loud as they can, it's hard for two people to talk to each other. As with WiFi, you can't fix all your problems with more WiFi - as it is all these problems look like nails I can fix with my hammer. ;-)

      1. ChrisBedford

        Re: messing with meshes

        Mesh APs are still not a panacea for crap WiFi performance

        No, not panacea - solution.

        It's not just signal strength that matters, but signal integrity

        Yes, that's what a mesh means.

        Methinks you haven't understood what a mesh is, exactly. It's not just a bunch of APs all shouting as loud as possible, it's an intelligently managed collection that acts more like one AP with distributed antennas, but with each one able to moderate its signal strength according to usage.

        1. tim292stro

          Re: messing with meshes

          Over WiFi (thereby using WiFi spectrum). Also see definition of "panacea" before arguing it's NEQ "solution".

          I know what mesh is, I run B.A.T.M.A.N advanced on a few 900MHz WiFi radios as a mesh "backbone" around my property, then more APs with smaller cell-like channel partitions and antenna arrays to provide access to regular devices.

          The point is that if you have a internet connection, then you need to transmit that data out to the device over wireless hops, then back to the point of access over more hops. Every one of those hops is a time slot on a channel that another device can't use - because they all happen in the same channel space the regular devices use. Modern consumer access points don't give the home user the control to tune the radiation and reception pattern to their own property (even though most AP n/ac chipsets can do beam forming). You would then "train" the AP to only accept signals from inside its reception area, and down-tune the gain so that the signal drops off outside the bounds. But it's probably a good thing too - more home users aren't ready for that level of control and responsibility.

          I did an installation in the early 2000's at HP Labs' campus in Palo Alto with original Lucent 802.11b PC-cards. More devices doesn't beat good RF planning, and I think we do a disservice telling consumers that they "...don't have to think about it, just put a few of these in every corner of your house!!" Doing an ACTUAL distributed antenna system (DAS) and down-tuning the AP(s) so that it only covers the intended area, and by antenna form-factor and placement rejects other signals, is far superior to deploying a mesh. Less devices "talking" in given, limited channels means more channel space available. Period.

  5. Pascal Monett Silver badge

    "controlling software in the cloud"

    Because what on Earth could go wrong ?

    In any case, thanks for the heads-up. Now I know that, the next time I need to shop for a Wi-Fi extender, I'm going to have to ensure that I can cut all cloudy control stuff before I complete my purchase.

    Here's hoping that that won't be a complete nightmare.

    1. Korev Silver badge
      Mushroom

      Re: "controlling software in the cloud"

      this can then report back to a cloud server with all the home network’s data.

      If this is true then this technology isn't going anywhere near my network!

      we probably need a better cloud icon ->

    2. phuzz Silver badge

      Re: "controlling software in the cloud"

      The particularly 'clever' mesh networking products need quite a lot of computing power to work out the optimum arrangement of backhauls and client channels, which is why several of them offload the calculations to 'the cloud' (ie 'someone else's servers'). The little ARM chips these things tend to run on just don't have the power.

      1. Jamie Jones Silver badge

        Re: "controlling software in the cloud"

        tough. my networks are fine thanks.

        I don't want my intra-house telemetric data going to anyone, nor do I want my stuff managed by some support desk person juggling other customers and clock-watching.

        A mesh per household? Talk about over-engineering. There must be more mansions and castles than I thought...

    3. Ernieivey

      Re: "controlling software in the cloud"

      Most commercial systems use cloud based controllers now without issue.

  6. peter 45

    "We suspect there is going to be a patents battle"

    Remember the days when patents were there to encourage, foster and reward innovation? Nope, me neither.

  7. BadModems
    FAIL

    This technology is Intel Puma 6 / 7 ONLY

    This technology is ONLY avaliable at this time if the cable modem is based on a Intel Puma 6 or 7.

    The list of the affected modems is http://badmodems.com/Forum/app.php/badmodems

    The modems listed in this article are affected. There is no way to do this technology using a Broadcom based device. The 0-day DoS attack and horrid latency performance make these modems UNUSABLE and after 9 months Intel does not have a fix. It may be bad silicon and not fixable and a recall may result. The register should not promote these devices.

    All details can be found here http://badmodems.com/

    Intel is using these advanced technologies to hook clients into these devices and trap them as they cannot go back to correctly performing devices without giving up the technology.

    The Virgin Media Hub 3 is the UK based horror involved in the UK. It has its own news reports here on El Reg https://www.theregister.co.uk/2017/07/21/virgin_media_puma_6_latency_issue_still_not_fixed_sixth_months_later/

    These issues looked baked into the silicon and NOT FIXABLE VIA FIRMWARE.. Technical discussion is here https://www.dslreports.com/forum/r31122204-SB6190-Puma6-TCP-UDP-Network-Latency-Issue-Discussion~start=5914

  8. Marty McFly
    Happy

    I'll only need 2 or 3 WAPs??

    I guess that will be down from the 10 I have deployed currently. All nice and happy on separate frequencies.

    Granted I live on property in the country, so if anyone has a rogue WAP causing interference they are likely trespassing.

    1. Steve Graham

      Re: I'll only need 2 or 3 WAPs??

      I usually only see my own as well, although one Saturday morning a wireless printer appeared. My nearest neighbours are about 400m away.

  9. J J Carter Silver badge
    Boffin

    Patents war?

    I dare say Sonos will be looking at their intellectual propertee for SonosNet

  10. hellwig Silver badge

    WiFi does or does not work.

    The success of WiFi is based on a few things, mostly building layout and signal interference.

    I lived in a 1100 sq-ft apartment and couldn't get a signal reliably in each room with a single router. I moved into a 2400 sq-ft house, and that same router (did I mention it's a $30 Netgear?) reliably covers the entire house, upstairs, main floor, basement, garage.

    My point? Move out into the country. Go as far away from the city center as your preferred ISP offers service. Leave the crowded metro areas for good. They're a lost cause. Just like mobile, there's only so much shit you can cram into the airwaves before it's just too saturated.

  11. AdamWill

    Optional

    Erm...why is this article talking about all this like it's new and uncertain when there've been like a dozen companies selling mesh wifi devices in the consumer market for a couple of years now?

    https://eero.com/

    https://madeby.google.com/wifi/

    https://amplifi.com/

    https://www.linksys.com/us/velop/

    https://www.netgear.com/orbi/

    Etc., etc., etc. I mean, you can already search and find *multiple* mesh wifi roundups from mainstream tech publications. Including one from six months ago calling mesh "the hottest trend in consumer wi-fi": http://bgr.com/2017/02/14/best-mesh-wifi-system-2017-mesh-network-router/

  12. David Roberts Silver badge
    Paris Hilton

    Did you like the bit

    About turning individual customer devices off remotely?

    Ummmm........Paris because she doesn't remotely turn me off??

  13. cageordie

    Prior art much

    What counts are AAA? Symbol was doing distributed wireless switches back in 2003 when I joined them. By about 2004 we had Kerberos and other login security as well as always following the latest encryption standards. By the time I left in 2007 we were meshing access points so we could cover parking lots and large campuses without wiring infrastructure. So what was new in 2012?

  14. Wayland Bronze badge

    Ruckus BeamFlex

    I've used Ruckus gear which has far better coverage, signal strength and throughput in difficult environments. It actually steers the antenna towards the client, both on TX and RX. It actually eliminated the need for multiple access points in the places I used it.

    It also works very well as multiple access points since they do co-operate to create a large WiFi coverage. Doing so with normal APs can cause issues as the client devices have to be smart enough to hop onto a better signal at the right moment. Something that often does not happen with it hanging on to a weak signal.

    The problem with Ruckus is it's very expensive. You can get an ebay repeater AP for £12 and a Ruckus for £600. The technology is there to not have to use multiple APs in a home. Also builders are starting to put CAT5e cable in homes. Only 15 years after I suggested it but they are doing so.

  15. jimdandy
    Windows

    Wi-fi my Aunt Betty! Hasn't anyone figured out this is just an excuse for not following up on the promises to deliver fiber optic service (AKA "high speed broadband") to the home/tenant? Mesh is just mush; y'all will be sucking the life out of your neighbor's bandwidth and vice-versa. Yeah, yeah all you country bumpkins will be happy until the next 400+ home/condo development is built on your former neighbor's 20 acre farm.

    All of this is just the big boi's new game on how to make even more money from you/us without actually spending any of their money on actual hardware infrastructure. Go on all you want about the new ticknology (cause it WILL bite you on the ass) and the whole mega-uploads to the Peeple's Revolution. This has nothing to do with "connecting us together" and everything to do with making us pay more for less service; and by the way charging us for all the new "infrastructure" that will consist of a box with antenna sitting on a pole, or the corner of your house and promising to deliver "blazing data speeds".

    New bullshit, same old lies.

  16. Len Goddard

    nope

    going through all this makes me more determined than ever to stick to nice ease-to-understand wire

  17. Stuart Ritchie

    With the GDPR this will be such fun

    Homes in the EU. Cloud storage. Automated decision-making. Children.

    Say no more?

  18. macaroo

    Living in a high density area of my small city, several years ago I noticed an increasing number of WI-FI access points as everybody in the neighborhood acquired a basic bare bones wireless router. I also experienced an interference problem with my neighbor's wireless printer. I decided to convert to a dual band router and leave 2.4Ghz behind. Using a neat piece of software called ainSSIDer to monitor the bands, I was delighted to find I was the only person on the 5Ghz band. The only draw back is the shorter range of the upper band. All the problems solved.

  19. Anonymous Coward
    Anonymous Coward

    With Apple Airports and time capsules been extending wifi networks via ethernet for 6 years...

    Since the 5th gen Extreme, 4th gen time capsule.

    Only work at N speeds throughout big properties, those with extensions with exterior walls blocking the signal or outbuildings like garages and pool houses. Never in wireless repeater mode that is utter garbage for any product.

    When they discontinue them I'll have to go second hand maddeningly..

  20. jacksmith21006

    Purchased the Google WiFi and best thing ever did for WiFi in our home. Daughter could never stream video in her room and now she can which makes me a hero.

  21. Anonymous Coward
    Anonymous Coward

    Ahh, naif & punyGeeky humanoid

    http://www.electricsense.com/12399/5g-radiation-dangers/

    5G Radiation Dangers – 11 Reasons To Be Concerned

    by Lloyd Burrell

    The USA is currently leading the way on 5G. At the June 2016 press conference where the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) head Tom Wheeler announced the opening up of low, mid and high spectrum’s. There was no mention of health effects whatsoever. But the dangers are real.

    5G radiation dangersThousands of studies link low-level wireless radio frequency radiation exposures to a long list of adverse biological effects, including:

    DNA single and double strand breaks

    oxidative damage

    disruption of cell metabolism

    increased blood brain barrier permeability

    melatonin reduction

    disruption to brain glucose metabolism

    generation of stress proteins

    Let’s not also forget that in 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) classified radio frequency radiation as a possible 2B carcinogen.

    More recently the $25 million National Toxicology Program concluded that radio frequency radiation of the type currently used by cell phones can cause cancer.

    But where does 5G fit into all this? Given that 5G is set to utilize frequencies above and below existing frequency bands 5G sits in the middle of all this. But the tendency (it varies from country to country) is for 5G to utilize the higher frequency bands. Which brings it’s own particular concerns. Here is my review of the studies done to date – 11 reasons to be concerned.

    #1 – A DENSER SOUP OF ELECTROSMOG

    We’re going to be bombarded by really high frequencies at low, short-range intensities creating a yet more complicated denser soup of electrosmog – as this diagram shows.

    5G frequencies

    Source: Latest on 5G Spectrum – EMFields Ltd.

    To work with the higher range MMW in 5G, the antennas required are smaller. Some experts are talking about as small as 3mm by 3mm. The low intensity is for efficiency and to deal with signal disruption from natural and man-made obstacles.

    #2 – EFFECTS ON THE SKIN

    The biggest concern is how these new wavelengths will affect the skin. The human body has between two million to four million sweat ducts. Dr. Ben-Ishai of Hebrew University, Israel explains that our sweat ducts act like “an array of helical antennas when exposed to these wavelengths,” meaning that we become more conductive. A recent New York study which experimented with 60GHz waves stated that “the analyses of penetration depth show that more than 90% of the transmitted power is absorbed in the epidermis and dermis layer.”

    The effects of MMWs as studied by Dr. Yael Stein of Hebrew University is said to also cause humans physical pain as our nociceptors flare up in recognition of the wave as a damaging stimuli. So we’re looking at possibilities of many skin diseases and cancer as well as physical pain to our skin.

    #3 – EFFECTS ON THE EYES

    A 1994 study found that low level millimeter microwave radiation produced lens opacity in rats, which is linked to the production of cataracts.

    An experiment conducted by the Medical Research Institute of Kanazawa Medical University found that 60GHz “millimeter-wave antennas can cause thermal injuries of varying types of levels. The thermal effects induced by millimeterwaves can apparently penetrate below the surface of the eye.”

    A 2003 Chinese study has also found damage to the lens epithelial cells of rabbits after 8 hours of exposure to microwave radiation and a 2009 study conducted by the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Pakistan conclude that EMFs emitted by a mobile phone cause derangement of chicken embryo retinal differentiation.

    #4 – EFFECTS ON THE HEART

    A 1992 Russian study found that frequencies in the range 53-78GHz (that which 5G proposes to use) impacted the heart rate variability (an indicator of stress) in rats. Another Russian study on frogs who’s skin was exposed to MMWs found heart rate changes (arrhythmias).

    #5 – IMMUNE SYSTEM EFFECTS

    A 2002 Russian study examined the effects of 42HGz microwave radiation exposure on the blood of healthy mice. It was concluded that “the whole-body exposure of healthy mice to low-intensity EHF EMR has a profound effect on the indices of nonspecific immunity”.

    #6 – EFFECTS ON CELL GROWTH RATES

    A 2016 Armenian study observed MMWs at low intensity, mirroring the future environment brought about by 5G. Their study conducted on E-coli and other bacteria stated that the waves had depressed their growth as well as “changing properties and activity” of the cells. The concern is that it would do the same to human cells.

    #7 – EFFECTS ON BACTERIA RESISTANCE

    The very same Armenian study also suggested that MMWs effects are mainly on water, cell plasma membrane and genome too. They had found that MMW’s interaction with bacteria altered their sensitivity to “different biologically active chemicals, including antibiotics.” More specifically, the combination of MMW and antibiotics showed that it may be leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria.

    This groundbreaking finding could have a magnum effect on the health of human beings as the bandwidth is rolled out nationwide. The concern is that we develop a lower resistance to bacteria as our cells become more vulnerable – and we become more vulnerable.

    #8 – EFFECTS ON PLANT HEALTH

    One of the features of 5G is that the MMW is particularly susceptible to being absorbed by plants and rain. Humans and animals alike consume plants as a food source. The effects MMW has on plants could leave us with food that’s not safe to consume.

    Think GMOs on steroids. The water that falls from the sky onto these plants will also be irradiated. A 2010 study on aspen seedlings showed that the exposure to radiofrequencies led to the leaves showing necrosis symptoms.

    Source: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfr/2010/836278/

    Another Armenian study found that MMWs of low intensity “invoke(s) peroxidase isoenzyme spectrum changes of wheat shoots.” Peroxidase is a stress protein existing in plants. Indications are that 5G will be particularly harmful to plants – perhaps more so than to humans.

    #9 – EFFECTS ON THE ATMOSPHERE AND DEPLETION OF FOSSIL FUELS

    Implementation of the 5G global wireless network requires the launching of rockets to deploy satellites for 5G. These satellites have a short lifespan which would require a lot more deployment than what we’re currently seeing. A new type of hydrocarbon rocket engine expected to power a fleet of suborbital rockets would emit black carbon which “could cause potentially significant changes in the global atmospheric circulation and distributions of ozone and temperature” according to a 2010 Californian study. Solid state rocket exhaust contains chlorine which also destroys the ozone.

    The effects on the ozone are thought to be worse than current day CFC exposure.

    Google’s Project Loon is said to bring Internet to rural and hard-to-access areas by using helium balloons. But these balloons only have a 10-month lifespan. We’re looking at a lot of helium being used here, more than what we can possibly have on Earth?

    #10 – DISRUPTION OF THE NATURAL ECOSYSTEM

    Since the year 2000, there have been reports of birds abandoning their nests as well as health issues like “plumage deterioration, locomotion problems, reduced survivorship and death,” says researcher Alfonso Balmori. Bird species that are affected by these low levels, non-ionizing microwave radiation are the House Sparrows, Rock Doves, White Storks, Collared Doves and Magpies, among others.

    But it’s not just the birds. The declining bee population is also said to be linked to this non-ionizing EMF radiation. It reduces the egg-laying abilities of the queen leading to a decline in colony strength.

    A study conducted by Chennai’s Loyola College in 2012 concluded that out of 919 research studies carried out on birds, plants, bees and other animals and humans, 593 of them showed impacts from RF-EMF radiations. 5G will be adding to the effects of this electrosmog.

    #11 – MOST 5G STUDIES MIS-LEADING

    5G will use pulsed millimeter waves to carry information. But as Dr. Joel Moskowitz points out, most 5G studies are misleading because they do not pulse the waves. This is important because research on microwaves already tells us how pulsed waves have more profound biological effects on our body compared to non-pulsed waves. Previous studies, for instance, show how pulse rates of the frequencies led to gene toxicity and DNA strand breaks.

    --------

    http://www.activistpost.com/2017/03/5g-not-health-safety-tested-still-rolled-out-everywhere.html

    ' Would you leave your microwave door open

    while it was operating?

    Well,

    what’s the difference when 5G Wi-Fi will be beamed at you all the time:

    in school,

    the workplace, at home, on your street,

    in airplanes, on trains, in cafés.

    Fried brains, anyone? Don’t laugh!

    We don’t know

    what 5G Wi-Fi range will do to human skin,

    and

    they don’t want to find out either; just install it as is.'

    5G Not Health-Safety-Tested BUT Still Being Rolled Out Everywhere

    TOPICS:Catherine FrompovichEMF

    MARCH 18, 2017

    By Catherine J. Frompovich...

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PwLJOxXGOww

    1. Anonymous Coward
      Anonymous Coward

      Re: Ahh, naif & punyGeeky humanoid

      FAKE NEWS!

      Ennybody tries ta use OUR bandwidth, they'll get shut down with FIRE and FURY! It'll be GREAT!

      This is the new U.S. FCC policy.

  22. anonymous boring coward Silver badge

    I'm currently up to 8 APs in my home, counting 5GHz ones as separate ones.

  23. Paul Lahaie

    I'm surprised no one has mentioned this yet.... but the absolute last thing I would ever want is to give my telecommunications provider yet another vector to try and monetize things that are basically free.

    I can just see it now:

    Internet service with Wireless Mesh (5 clients/shared 1TB data plan) - $199.99/mo

    Every additional TB of data - $49.99/mo

    Every 10 additional clients - $4.99/mo

    MU-MIMO Support (Premium) - $9.99/mo

    Legacy Device Support (B/G/N) - $4.99/mo

    All Meshed networks will also be available for them to use as their mobile signal, so you're up to 250Mb service will sometimes be lower because we are reselling the bandwidth you are already paying for to other customers (I know the modems are over-provisioned to help offset the 3rd party usage... but DOCSIS isn't able to deliver the full bandwidth to every customer -- during Netflix Primetime, my 26MB/s turns into ~ 12-18MB/s -- they'll fix it when they get around to doing a node split)

    And next will come DPI on your internal wireless network, so they can make sure you're not ripping off any of their media properties (or any of the other members of their cartel)

    Let's give the absolute worst behaving companies (as far as serving their customers) in the world even more ways they can control your interaction with the network. It took them a few decades, but they will manage to turn the Internet into their modern X.25 data network. So they can monetize absolutely every aspect of every interaction on it (you know, monthly access free, data charges, hourly rate, extra for "premium" sites)

    Ugh

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