Not Windows 10
I suppose we should be grateful that, because of its age, the ISS isn't running Windows 10. Now that would be a scary proposition.
It's never a nice feeling with your computer keels over, wiping out work, sometimes requiring hours of maintenance and basically ruining your day. But spare a thought for the three astronauts currently in the International Space Station who discovered earlier today that one of the three computers in the station's Russian …
The area up there, although not very far away from the surface of earth, is still full of cosmic radiation. Things like latch-ups, where an unintended thyristor in your chip gets started by some particle causing your chip to have a short, are not uncommon.
Though this is space flight. The task at hand is not very computationally intensive. So it's likely those 3 computers use space hardened hardware with structure sizes from the 1980s. So we are probably talking about the complexity of an early 1980s home computer.
The US no longer uses rad hard gear in almost all cases, they just shield it and rely on redundancy. Dunno if Russia has followed suit.
You still end up with trailing edge technology because it takes them a decade or two to design stuff that goes into space. You don't get to up the spec to whatever is current after you've spent years testing everything.
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