Re: Check this out for a cool explanation
@"The little animated diagrams of the gates and their effects on the superpositioned"
Nah. Firstly there's one claimed quantum computer currently, the DWAVE, and there's no superpositioning going on in that. It's an analogue magnetic field computer. You configure a circuit in it, that circuit is made of coils and magnetic fields and superconductors. As the fields collapse, they reach a balance, so you can solve 'minimization' problems with. i.e. solve this equation y = F(x1,x2,x3,x4...) to find the values of x1,x2,x3,x4, that create the lowest possible value of y.
DWave often doesn't find the optimal result, it finds a sub-optimal local minimum. It Superpositioning was going on, then x1,x2,x3... would pass through *all* possible values, including the ideal *optimal* solution. What it tells us is that these qubits are in a *single* state, and it happened to be nearer the *sub-optimal* solution than the optimal one as the field collapsed.
So no superimposition, just analogue computer.
And as for entanglement, no. If there was such a thing as entanglement it would work 1000x faster than light, so the result would be instantaneous, and it isn't.
And Light does not really change between wave and particle, light has no way of knowing whether the experiment it's passing through is to detect wave or particle properties, and the idea that it goes back in time, and changes its nature (and the nature of every particle it interacted with along the way) to fit the first time its detected, is just laughable. It's just the limits of the detection method mapped onto the thing being detected.
It's the flock of starlings problem: If your detector can only see the flock and not the individual bird, then you see a big flock sized particle, jumping around, sometimes in multiple places at once, sometimes nowhere, as if its time traveling or travelling faster than light.
You see the same effect in bubble chambers with some particles that appear to go backwards in time,
...and even in lightning strikes that goes from ground to sky as if the ground was discharging to the sky... or the sky was discharging to the ground in backwards time...
... except of course your not seeing the discharge at all, you're seeing the arc of light it creates as it heats the air. You eyes see the arc, because they can't see the electricity flowing. Another limit of the detector mapped onto the observed effect.