Re: Geneva Convention?
This is publicity seeking fantasy on Musk's part, though I agree we should not have autonomous weapons of any sort.
Cruise Missiles (Many are jet engined drones with rocket motors for launch) are an updated version of the V1 / V2. They are usually manually launched, but use onboard autonomous guidance and targeting. In any case only snipers (and similar) fire at individually selected humans. Rapid fire, machine guns, shells, missiles, torpedoes, mines and bombs are indiscriminate and often used against non-combatants (civilians, medics, wounded soldiers, prisoners, animals etc).
Also Heat seeking surface to air and air to air missiles.
MIRV nuclear ICBMs. Aren't some set to automatically launch if the other side's first strike is detected? They are not anyway aimed at identified individuals.
Are Drones and loitering "cruise missiles" always manually targeted?
1) It's really got nothing to do with AI
2) The big nations only either ban smaller nations from their weapons or agree to ban weapons that don't actually work too well for them (Chemical & Biological. e.g. in WWI Gas attacks far less effective and more expensive than shelling or machine guns or tanks). Major big power exception is USA using agent orange/defoliants in Vietnam. Current Syrian regime and Saddam Hussain used Chemical weapons to intimidate and kill civilians. They are not very effective against an organised army.
Note: The WWII German V weapons killed about 2,000 enemy civilians and hardly any allied soldiers. About 20,000 of their own slave and other workers died making them. If they had made aircraft and U-boats it would have been more effective. Churchill turned tide of Battle of Britain by war crime of targeting German Civilian areas / Cities. Germans then switched from bombing aerodromes to UK cities (and Dublin twice, one accident, once because Fire Engines sent to help in Belfast). Hitler then ordered development of V weapons (Vengeance). Churchill certainly understood Hitler's psychology.