* Posts by Peter Gathercole

2114 posts • joined 15 Jun 2007

Telly behemoths: Does size matter?

Peter Gathercole
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Re: When I was a kid

Degaussing circuits were not in late '60s and early '70s valve TVs. These would often, over time, acquire a permanent magnetic field around the chassis or the tube itself, leading to psychedelic colours at the edges of the screen. You got a TV engineer out with a magical degauss coil that he waved over the screen to make it work properly.

To compensate for the earth's magnetic field, these TVs actually had small bar magnets mounted on the chassis around the tube on bendable 'stalks'. These would be painstakingly adjusted until the Test Card showed no distortion.

My mother was obsessed with keeping a cabinet TV. They used to rent a Baird from Radio Rentals right from when BBC 2 first started transmitting in colour (around 1967 IIRC - That was a bad year for me because of illness, and I was off school for some time, and I got hooked on the Trade test transmissions which were broadcast on the hour for the benefit of TV installers - White Horses, Skycrane, and trout farming come to mind). Towards the end of it's life in the '80s, the tube was so badly magnetized that it would not demagnetize, no matter how many times the degauss coil was passed over the TV. Of course, it could be that Radio Rentals no longer had any working degauss coils in their toolboxes!

Eventually, Radio Rentals pleaded with my parents to stop calling in faults and let them take it away, because they could no longer fix it. They provided a Ferguson in it's place, which just did not hack it with my mother as it was made from paper covered chipboard, rather than real wood!

Right up until the end of her life, my mother still complained that the sound and colour(maybe because it was not psychedelic!) of whatever TV they had was poor compared to the Baird TV. I think it was an ideological thing, however, as this was even with the sound passed through external amplification.

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And the buggiest OS provider award goes to ... APPLE?

Peter Gathercole
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Unhappy

Re: This is not a football match. @h4rm0ny

It is entirely possible that it could be done as a community project, but the resource involved would probably be too much for a one-man band, or even a small group of people doing it in their spare time, and the necessity to test it against the plethora of distros would be a similarly mammoth task.

It's easy to have a community project that adds a veneer over the top, because you can break the tool down into modules that drive the documented tools. Getting in at the fundamental layers, where the different disros tend to differ from each other, and where the documentation has not been maintained, or in some cases not even written is a much harder task, and requires much more research and testing.

It would be difficult to get such a layer accepted to the extent that the major distro owners would adopt and maintain this common approach in preference to their own distro specific tool.

If we had had a situation where a fully free Linux had become a defacto standard, then if that distro maintainer was altruistic, they could have incorporated something like this and hope that it would be picked up by other distros, but it seems unlikely that the increasingly fragmented Linux world will settle on a dominant distro (hell, the systemd risks fracturing the community even more than it currently is).

What with Canonical, a company that was being portrayed as a bit of a white knight a few years back, going in a direction that is unlikely to be followed by other distros, I think the time for a dominant distro is fading into the past. Mint is unfortunately reliant on Ubuntu, and RedHat always had an agenda to try to leverage support contracts from their users. SuSE, which looked like it's independence was under threat appears to have weathered the storm but has lost followers. Debian appears to be going with systemd, which will alienate a lot of people (and will be a nightmare to administer using a tool such as I am proposing).

I suppose that Lennart Poettering (systemd) could take on an administration tool that would plug into systemd and extend it to cover other sysadmin tasks, but I for one would not trust him to run such a project without making it almost completely unusable/unsupportable.

Unhappy.

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: This is not a football match. @h4rm0ny

System administration is one of those areas where Linux has suffered because of the diversity of the distros.

The one-size-fits-all processes like useradd will do the basic job at hand on the local system, and are pretty similar across all versions of Linux. Once you get beyond this, each of the distros have their own idea of how to streamline this and other admin tasks, and most of these are pretty distro specific. In some cases they are proprietary and closed source to try and generate a revenue stream, and do not interoperate.

There is not even a consistent package management format across all versions of Linux.

It is very difficult for a new Open Source package to come along and streamline this. What is needed is a low-level tool that goes in at a suitable level so that it can manipulate the configuration files/databases/objects fundamental in Linux, to provide a consistent system management layer in all distros .

What you actually get (like with Puppet) is a whole load of distro specific methods layered on top of and driving the specific interfaces for each distro. This works, but is high maintenance, which often means that it becomes paid-for software (again, Puppet is an example of this).

There are two ways this could happen. One is if the major distros decide to collaborate and produce a common administration interface. The other is for a standardisation body to add the specification of such an interface, and have the distros adopt that standard.

The former is unlikely to happen, as the distro specific sysadmin stuff is where people like RedHat and Canonical make some of their money. The latter cannot happen as there is no accepted Linux standard or even standardisation authority, and even if there were, it would be dominated by the commercial distro maintainers, because they are the only people who might have resources to invest in a standard, and then we are back to the former point.

So what we have left is paid-for software or home-grown scripts put together by sysadmins which do the job, but are seen as being messy.

I can see no way of moving this forward unless someone with big pockets and a lot of influence with the distro maintainers decides to take it on.

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Britain needs more tech immigrants, quango tells UK.gov

Peter Gathercole
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Joke

I think that all the time there are native people with relevant skills available, that this type of request should be squashed. Does the Government even try to assess whether there is a real skills shortage, or do they trust the very people who are asking and would likely benefit through smaller wage bills?

How to independently measure whether there are people available to do the jobs? Well, how about a Register!

Anybody in El. Reg interested in creating a list of people with specific job skills who are currently available to present to the Government to counter claims of shortage of skills? I'd probably be prepared to pay a reasonable amount to appear on such a list when I'm not in work!

I've used the Joke icon because of the pun, but maybe it's not a joke.

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Samb-AAAHH! Scary remote execution vuln spotted in Windows-Linux interop code

Peter Gathercole
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@h4rmony

Unless I've missed something here, the steps of forking another process and performing a setuid/seteuid are still separate calls. It's not the fork() that is the problem, it is the fact that in order to perform the setuid/seteuid() the process changing it's credentials must be running as root.

So you have a root owned samba process that forks another root owned samba process, which then changes it's credentials to the user.

This is the way it works for all traditional UNIX processes first acquire a users credentials, things like login, sshd, telnetd, ftpd etc. etc. As people point out, it is a fundamental feature/flaw depending on how you look at it.

This is changed significantly if SELinux is turned on (or another RBAC system on other UNIXes), whereby you need to have the correct roles assigned to a process for it to be able to perform actions, which includes syscalls. Thus, I think that Linux already has a more controllable authentication system, it's just not turned on in most systems, as it's foreign to the way that most Linux/UNIX systadmins think.

Even though I understand the concept. I'm one of the sysadmins who've never set up a RBAC/SELinux system in anger, so I still have to go through the learning curve for this.

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'Utterly unusable' MS Word dumped by SciFi author Charles Stross

Peter Gathercole
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Re: complex documents

eqn

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: I admit, I am Word Processor inept.

You reverse engineer an existing Word document to work out how to use Word!

I would say that this is close to an impossibility, especially using styles as an example.

I've seen Word documents that have dozens of what look like identically names styles, caused by someone tweaking a particular element in a paragraph (like indenting it), which leads to a new modified style being created with the same or a very similar name.

I once spent the best part of a week cleaning up a long, operational document that had been pieced together by cut-and-paste from other documents which had something like 100 different styles in it. All of the source documents were supposed to have been written using the same template, but a lot had had the styles changed in minor ways at the whim of the author. And Word kept the modified styles when doing cut-and-paste!

I'm a real throwback. I did most of my technical writing in the past in troff with memorandum macros, and I used to use SCCS as the change control (and make to control the whole process). I suppose if I was writing more than I do at the moment, I would probably take a similar tack with LaTeX and a modern change control package, although I do find for my purposes Git or Subversion are too complex. As it is, for short documents and letters, I tend to use Libre all the time, because I can pretty much guarantee that it is either already available or can be installed. Such is the advantage of free software.

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Expired router cache sends Google Cloud Engine TITSUP

Peter Gathercole
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Re: Remind me again @Lee D

The difference is that if an in-house service goes down, you can investigate the problem after the fact, and try to so something to prevent that same problem from happening again, and this includes disciplining anybody responsible for the design or operation of the service.

You have nothing like that level of control with cloud services. You might hope that the service provider may learn from the experience and do the same type of review that you might, but there is probably nothing in your contract that forces them to do so, and this probably includes actually being given an accurate and complete report of the issue. Unless there are specific uptime targets in your contract, it may ultimately be that the only lever you have over the provider is to threaten to leave them, with whatever the fallout that will cause.

I don't doubt that there are some services where this is a perfectly acceptable risk, but there are many, many others where this is just not the case. Couple that with the uncertainty regarding control of access to your data, and these things together make it quite unlikely that I would recommend putting any business critical service in the cloud.

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Got $600 for every Win Server 2003 box you're running? Uh-oh

Peter Gathercole
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Re: Over a barrel. ¿lots more security patches for RHEL?

"That's like claiming IE stats don't count because Microsoft got the original code from Spyglass.."

Um. No. It's really not.

Red Hat do not 'own' all of the packages. They do not claim that they maintain all of the packages. You are falling into the same trap that I showed was false in a previous post. Please refer to that.

But to re-iterate. Red Hat own the compilation and packaging of many of the packages in their repositories. They do not own the maintenance of the packages themselves. They could fork a package if they wanted (it's Open Source after all), but in most cases they don't want to for perfectly valid reasons. Use Firefox as an example, which is in the distro, but is maintained by the Mozilla Foundation.

In contrast, Microsoft claim IE as their own package. They maintain it. They employ staff explicitly to maintain it, and they would be super-pissed if someone else tried to publish a derivative of IE, or claim some IP over it.

It appears to me that you are deliberately trying to confuse the issue, unless you really have a fundamental mental block about what Open Source is all about.

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: SIP server @AC

It seems to me that several of the distros include packages like Asterisk and Sems in their repositories, and Glassfish/Sailfin appear to be Open Source packages shipped as jar files that will not need compiling. Now I don't know what you were trying to achieve, but did you look?

I realise that you may have been wanting features that are not in builds of packages in the repositories, particularly if you want interoperability with some commercial products (vendors just love to include proprietary or bleeding edge extensions which often cause problems with Open Source packages).

If the package you were wanting was part of a commercial product, even if it were a free component, then did you try suggesting that the vendor provide the same degree of support for OSs other than Windows as they do for Windows? Sometimes what people see as a deficiency in Linux is really with the vendor of a particular package being unwilling to provide adequate support for Linux platforms, and that is hardly the fault of the distro maintainer, or the Linux community as a whole!

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: Over a barrel. @AC - ACLs

Don't for a second think that ACLs are a feature introduced by Windows.

The earliest I remember ACLs being discussed was in Multics, whose design goes back to the 1960's, before Microsoft was even a company. Multics had a very complete security model for it's time, which included control over processes and services as well as the filesystem.

The thing about UNIX-like file permissions is that they have been good enough for most purposes for decades. They're a long way from being perfect, and I've said as much many times on these forums, but they can be made to do most of what is required with the right amount of knowledge. This has meant that until recently there was no pressing need to implement ACLs.

Where they were implemented, they were frequently unused because system administrators of the time did not think it necessary. Simpler times, maybe.

ACL implementations have existed in UNIX systems for many, many years. They first appeared in AIX with AIX 3.1 in 1990, and I'm pretty sure that the Veritas filesystem that could be used as the base filesystem on a number of proprietary operating systems also included ACLs.

The Andrew File System had both Kerberos support and ACLs from the early 1990's as well.

If you think that filesystem ACLs are not enough, look at the UNIX and Linux implementations of RBAC (and SELinux). Because most RBAC implementations use PAM, this means that it is possible to have RBAC controlled by Kerberos, and even put LDAP in the mix, and this allows something not that dissimilar to what I read Windows can do. And this has been possible for many years, before Microsoft jumped on the Kerberos bandwagon.

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: Over a barrel. @AC again

It is perfectly possible to use Kerberos to control access to a Linux system. All distros I know ship a PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) which allows you to use Kerberos as a primary access control mechanism. OpenSSH has Kerberos support built in, and there is support for Kerberos tickets in sudo to control user commands.

Many years ago (~20 IIRC - before even NTFS 5 and Windows 2000), there was a file system called DCE/DFS for POSIX'y systems that also integrated Kerberos tickets into filesystem ACLs. The Andrew File System (which DCE/DFS was adapted from) still exists and still uses Kerberos tickets to control access. Generally speaking, it's a technology that was regarded as unnecessary, or maybe it was just ahead of it's time. I think that GPFS can also use Kerberos, but that may just be for system-to-system authentication. Thinking about it NFS4 and later uses GSSAPI, and you can plug Kerberos into that as well.

So don't think that Microsoft invented these things in Windows. They're playing catchup, but no doubt they will try embrace, extend and extinguish again as they have tried with LDAP/Active Directory and DNS.

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: Over a barrel. @AC

Having just read a Technet description of Kerberos constrained delegation, it would appear that Microsoft have implemented a service using a fundamental feature of Kerberos - which appeared on a number of platforms including UNIX before it was added to Windows, and have been presumptuous enough to have given it a name.

Linux implementations of Kerberos will have the same fundamental technologies, but nobody has given it s specific name except Microsoft, who are trying to cash in on other people's work. I'm pretty certain that all Linux distro's will have Kerberos 5 support in their repositories. RHEL6.5 certainly has.

There are also several deduplication facilities available for Linux, including a number of filesystems like btrfs and ZFS. You just have to use a search engine to find them. ZFS also supports tiered storage (before Windows 2012, btw), as does IBM Elastic Storage, although Elastic Storage (aka GPFS) is commercial software.

I admit that it's not out-of-the-box, but it's hardly difficult to come by.

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Lenovo shipped lappies with man-in-the-middle ad/mal/bloatware

Peter Gathercole
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Re: I Wonder

There always were different ranges of Thinkpads.

Go for the T series (or an X series if you want a compact laptop).

When IBM owned the brand there were at least the R series which were plasticky, and the A series which were larger and heavier. Before that, they were numbered, with the 300 range being budget and made of plastic, and the 700 range being the business systems.

Lenovo have dropped all of the old IBM ranges except the T and X, and have re-branded some of their other ranges as Thinkpads to cash in on the name.

I have a work T420, and apart from the appalling new 'island' keys, it seems as robust as the older systems.

The T used to stand for Titanium (actually an alloy with titanium in it) that was used in a chassis to stiffen the screen/lid, which along with clever interlocks between the lid and base led to the reputation about them being extremely robust. The hinges certainly last longer than most other laptops.

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Apple LIGHTSABERS to feature in The Force Awakens

Peter Gathercole
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Re: @Graham Marsden Splinter of the Mind's Eye

This was not just an Expanded Universe story. It's THE FIRST Expanded Universe story.

It was published before The Empire Strikes Back was released, so is extremely non-canon.

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DARPA's 'Cortical Modem' will plug straight into your BRAIN

Peter Gathercole
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Re: World domination in three easy steps

Got to have a GITS SAC reference here.

Stand infiltration technique. Hack their eyes so they can't see you.

"I thought what I'd do was, I'd pretend I was one of those deaf-mutes." - JD Salinger

"Or should I" - Laughing man!

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UK.gov can't get farmers onto its Verify service – even to claim subsidies

Peter Gathercole
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Re: From the Whitehall Home for the Hard of Thinking @tony72

It all depends.

If the web-site designers have loaded it with copious numbers of large images, it may actually not be possible to use dial up, at least not if you intend to maintain your sanity.

I've not seen the Verify web site, so I can't say for certain how heavy that page is.

From my perspective, there are basically two different types of farm. Large ones, run by technically capable farmers, and small mainly family run farms that may be years behind in the deployment of technology. I have both types in my extended family, and have had to help my father-in-law comply with some of the demands made of them in the past, as even something like deciding what the map reference and acreage of a field is can be a challenge. My father-in-law before he gave up farming would have no idea about how to verify his ID using a service like this. He would rely on a professional like an accountant or other professional to do it for him, like he did with his tax, VAT, and to some extent his subsidiary paperwork. If that avenue was not open, he would have left farming earlier, like so many others.

It may actually be the case that using a relatively technically challenged group is a good one to test the system out with, but you'd better make sure that there is an emergency catch-net, because in the case of some farms, the EU subsidy is all that separates break-even from loss, and I'm not sure that the banks are compassionate enough to refrain from taking action if loan or other payments are not made because the subsidy payment is delayed.

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Vint Cerf: Everything we do will be ERASED! You can't even find last 2 times I said this

Peter Gathercole
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It's hopeless

We need a technology that can be abandoned and still be readable in future times.

Any technological solution is bound to fail because maintaining it requires repeated investment in either maintaining what will become an obsolete storage format in the future, or repeatedly re-writing it as new media are invented.

It's all very well suggesting that technology from people such as "Carnegie Mellon University and IBM Research" might be worth using, but this assumes a certain amount of continuity to maintain the physical storage that requires organisations to survive. You cannot rely on government or industry to still be around in the future, and the 'Cloud' (whatever is meant by that) needs to be maintained as well.

You end up with stupid chicken-and-egg situations if the description of the programs and machines necessary to read the media is only stored on the media itself.

I respect Vint Cerf. He's very influential. But he's not, in the grand scheme of things, an engineer (his degrees are in Mathematics, and he's managed various teams and companies mainly on data communication). Nowadays, he's good at the grand scheme thinking, not the detail.

He was being interviewed on Radio 4 this morning, and I got the feeling that he was either dumbing down what he was saying for a non-technical audience, or that he did not fully understand various fundamentals on machine architecture and what would be necessary to maintain in order to run a program from a current generation of machines. I would hope that it was the former, but I was not convinced. When taking about the systems, he talked about taking a snapshot of the software "with a description of the machine it runs on", glossing over that the description would have to be incredibly detailed to capture all the nuances of machine architecture to allow a working machine to be reconstructed from that description.

I would suspect strongly that it would already be nigh on impossible already to reconstruct systems from people like DG, Prime or Tandem (amongst others) unless working physical instances exist.

Trying to capture all of the operating characteristics of a complex modern processor like Power 8 or a Haswell and the associated support chipsets to allow it to be reimplemented in the future on architectures unimaginable at the moment would be a herculean task!

Much better would be to ban the use of all proprietary closed file formats, and keep the definition of the open file formats in enough detail to reconstruct the data stored in those formats.

But this does not alter the fact that there needs to be readable media maintained in perpetuity.

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UK.gov tempts SMEs with tasty framework, then slaps them in face

Peter Gathercole
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The bidding process itself is enough to put most SMEs off.

The time and the cost is just not something that a company that does not turn over millions can risk without some expectation that they could get the contract.

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This optical disc will keep your gumble safe for 2,000 YEARS

Peter Gathercole
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Re: It's just unfortunate...

...and stored on recordable optical media for longevity!

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: Verbatim? Shudder...

I think 5.25" floppy disk was a flawed media anyway.

You relied on the disk remaining flexible enough to spin in the case which was not flat, stiff enough to not crease while it was being spun up and moved over the heads, and for the glue to remain stable enough to keep the rust particles attached to the disk while it was scoured by the disk head and the 'soft' material on the inside of the case. And you also have the problem of the way that the clamp on the drive grabbed the plastic of the disk itself, and over time damaged the edge of the hole.

From my experience, all 8" and 5.25" floppies ware now of questionable use, regardless of manufacturer. Certainly, I have Verbatim disks that still read, and BASF, Nashua and 3M disks that don't.

The 3.5" and 3" disks were slightly better because at least the case was rigid, and was less likely to rub the surface of the disk while it rotated.

Optical disks are much less likely to suffer, because there is significantly less physical contact (ideally none) anywhere on the disk except where the clamp grabs the disk. I have 30 year old audio CDs that still play, and some CD-R disks that I recorded before the millennium that still can be read.

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Peter Gathercole
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A positive step

My personal feeling is that if the media is rated for that long, there will be some effort made to make sure that, at least in the medium term, that the media can be read.

Couple this with the fact that it is piggy-backing on a consumer level technology, and should be able to be read on any BD-XL drive means that there is a higher chance that devices will continue to be made into the near future (decades) that will read it. I know that it is not really a good comparison, but CDs are still readable in current generation BluRay readers, so that shows that a medium with sufficient market penetration can still be readable nearly four decades later.

I know that this is not anything like the 1000 years specified for this media, but it is suitable for medium term (decades) archive of financial data in a way that current generations of disk/tape technology is not.

I'm not going to suggest that we should stop using durable physical media for the intelectual riches of our society, however, because when the technology fall happens, anything that is not readable by eye will be useless anyway!

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WATCH IT: It's watching you as you WATCH IT (Your Samsung telly is)

Peter Gathercole
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Re: "get up out of their seat"

And do what, once they are out of the seat?

Have you actually tried to do anything using just the minimal set of buttons on the telly itself?

You're normally limited to buttons for power, channel up and down and volume up and down. If you're lucky you may have an input selector and sometimes a menu button. And if you're really lucky, there may be a physical power switch somewhere you can find it.

Whilst checking a Sharp telly I was given (without a remote), I tried to get it to re-scan the DTV channels after I had done a reset. Turns out you can't do it at all without the remote. Fortunately, I came across a code for one of my universal remotes that provided the "DTV menu" button needed. I also think that my main living room telly can't select HDMI as an input from the buttons on the telly.

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Bankrupt RadioShack to close up to 2,900 stores, share others with Sprint

Peter Gathercole
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Re: They died years ago, in the UK

Somewhere in the house I have a Maplin catalogue from about 1981. I know that this is a few years after they started (I first ordered from them in about 1976, but from an advert in ETI). This was the time that Radio Spares and Farnell would not sell to you unless you has a business account.

I'm pretty certain that even back then they sold gadgets and gimmicks like RC cars, clocks et. al. There just weren't as many things available (remember that back then, digital watches were a pretty neat idea), and basic things like digital multimeters, calculators, breadboards with TTL and LEDS and electronic ignition modules satisfied the techno-lust of the geeks of the day, and other men (sorry, the time was just more sexist) wanted motorbikes, powerful cars and season tickets to their football team.

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: They died years ago, in the UK

I never saw a US Radio Shack store, having only seen the UK Tandy stores. I was never impressed by them because they were too small to stock enough of the available Radio Shack range to be useful.

But on one of the previous articles, someone posted a link to a blog that contained a link to the old catalogues site for Radio Shack which shows a proud history of actually selling useful things.

I can see that some older people might look back fondly on the past, but today is a different time. I miss bricks and mortar shops of all types, there's nothing like browsing and being actually able to see what you are buying, but I can see that they can't stock the ranges or match the prices of internet sellers. Unless you live in a large city, it's much easier nowadays to order online and just have the stuff delivered.

People in the UK compare Maplin to Radio Shack, but I wonder just how many of those people remember that Maplin first became big by selling mail order rather than having many (any?) physical stores.

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BT coughs £12.5 billion for EE as fourplay frolics pay off

Peter Gathercole
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Re: What will happen to EE TV?

Bearing in mind that my EETV box (which I did not ask for, it just arrived one day between Christmas and the New Year) does not appear to offer any EE specific content, it will probably still work fine when the EE brand disappears, unless they ask for it back (which they can do, according to the Ts&Cs). But I can't see BT wanting it back after the takeover. It'll cost them more than it's value.

I'm a Sky TV customer (for longer than I've been an EE customer) as well, using EE for my mobile, broadband and phone (the Sky broadband offer was pants in my area, and EE offered a significant multi-play discount). The EETV box is a nice to have but not actually used that much device. It's quite nice (4, count them, 4 freeview HD tuners) and can record three programs off-air while watching a fourth. Not got too many add-on services yet (no Amazon Prime, Netflix, ITV Player or 4OD, only a service called Wuaki, which I've not even used the free tokens that came with the box yet.

I think that they sent it to me so that they could claim me as a 4-play customer, in the same way that they offered me a discount to switch from Orange to EE to claim me as a 4G customer, even though there is no 4G provision in my home area!

I just hope that they continue the discounts until then end of my contracted period.

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Silicene takes on graphene as next transistor wonder-stuff

Peter Gathercole
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Re: Valence

I keep looking, and I still can't make it work unless it is not purely 2D, and/or the 'units' are more like squashed hexagons than rectangles. Maybe I need to see a fully rendered model that I can rotate.

I had not spotted that the bonds were different colours (probably a problem with my monitor and the ambient light), so I suppose that the dark grey/black bonds are double bonds, and the lighter grey bonds are single. At least that makes the valence correct.

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Peter Gathercole
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Valence

I hope that the structure is more regular than the picture in the article!

At the left-most end, we've got rectangular blocks of 6 silicon atoms in a 2x3 pattern, with adjacent blocks overlapping so that the middle of one of the x3 rectangles forms the corner of the adjacent rectangles.

At the right-most end, we appear to have pairs of silicon atoms forming the corners of a 2x2 square structure.

In the middle, it's all a bit of a mess, with some 'bonds' looking longer than others. I've not counted the bonds properly but the fact that silicon has a valance of 4 (the same as carbon) makes it look wrong. Maybe my chemistry is too rusty!

I suppose that it could be a problem with the projection, but I've looked hard, and I think the atoms are in the wrong place for it to be some form of aspect correction.

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Why Windows 10 on Raspberry Pi 2? Upton: 'I drank the Kool-Aid'

Peter Gathercole
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Re: Not a problem @Cynic

UEFI is a BIOS replacement. It will always be in the ROM/Flash memory as a first stage bootstrap.

If you have the part of UEFI hard-coded so that only allows booting of a cryptographically signed OS from the media (and this is what WindowsRT mandated, it would not boot if UEFI was configured to be more relaxed), then you've got a chicken-and-egg situation where you can't break in to run another OS.

Microsoft insisted that WindowsRT systems were locked down like this because they did not want someone buying a Surface, and showing how well Android would run on the rather nice hardware.

As discussed before on these forums, the consensus is that one of the distro owners should provide a UEFI complient cryptographically signed Grub that could be booted to break the straight-jacket that was being planned by the Trusted Computing Group, or whatever it was last called.

A locked UEFI on a RiPi would be a complete disaster.

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: Security??? @AC re Apache and IIS @AC again

Plain and simply, no it doesn't.

Same issue. The CD/DVD is just a local extract of the repository. And I'm not too sure how many distros have Apache on the install CD/DVD. Desktop releases of Ubuntu don't.

To put this in context, LibreOffice is on most distro media, and that is not part of Linux. Similarly Firefox.

You've still not understood what Open Software is about.

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: Security??? @AC re Linux OS compromises

The cited defect in the Linux kernel is actually a privilege escalation issue.

Now I know that I don't know the full details of the way that this was used, but I would suspect that it is not a remote vulnerability. Looking at it, it appears that in order to exploit it, you need to be able to have a local user session on the system, which implies that the first point of security has already been breached. Looking at the stats, this is probably because of lax user or password administration or issues with input validation of data in web pages.

Indeed, the quoted stats. appear to show that the highest vector for attack is a file inclusion, with the second highest being an attack against the administrator like password stealing or sniffing.

So if web site owners tightened up their code ad administration practices, even if the bug still existed, it would not be nearly as important.

Anyway, the public aspects of the Zone-H web site appear to show that it is not frequently maintained (only two news items in 2014), although there may be more information to logged in users, so it's probably not that creditable source of information.

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: Security??? @AC re Apache and IIS

I think that you are deliberately blurring the distinction between an operating system and an application in a repository, particularly in the Open Source world.

Just because something appears in the repository for a particular OS does not mean that it forms part of the operating system! If it did, then you could imply, by applying reductio ad absurdum, that everything in the Apple App store or Google Play is part of IOS or Android respectively.

What Redhat, Cannonical, SuSE, Debian et. al. do when creating a repository is take a package which has an open or permissive licence, and compile it to run on their distribution. They take ownership of the port and packaging, but pass any security, functionality or performance problems upstream to the package owner. And in some parts of the repositories, there are community maintained packages where the Distro maintainer does even less!

So in the case of Apache, problems that have nothing to do with the build process will be passed to the Apache Software Foundation, not owned by the Distro organisation.

You were correct in pointing out that my analogy with IIS was actually not a good one though, because with IIS, the owning organisation is the same as the owner of the OS.

I don't think that was your intention, however!

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: Security??? @AC

"Just look at website defacement stats" - this old chestnut again.

You're looking at the wrong thing. Websites may run on computers running Linux, but the code that delivers the web site is not Linux in the same way that IIS is not Windows, and a website defacement is not the same as an OS exploit. There may be some overlap, but it's very far from an exact match.

I thought we had educated all the AC trolls that cannot distinguish between the OS and the applications running on the OS.

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ZX81 BEATEN at last as dev claims smallest Chess code crown

Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

Re: "remember how you had to get the RAM pack balanced just right?" @John

None of the Sinclair machines were built as modular systems. In the case of the ZX80 and 81, the card edge expander was effectively just the naked CPU busses with one or two added lines, and the cases were not produced with an eye to add additional equipment apart from the RAM pack. Even the Interface 1 for the Spectrum was only just fit for purpose.

What happened is that capable and inquiring people found ways of using this 'expansion' bus to do things that it was not intended for. Indeed, if you could see a ZX81 with the Quicksilver expansion board on it, you would marvel at the fact that it worked at all!

I spent time and money on my ZX81 mainly because I could (and I was waiting for my BBC micro to be delivered - about 6 months IIRC). Whilst it was fun, the benefit was very minor (the number of games that made use of the QS sound card was tiny) except for the satisfaction of doing it - exactly the definition of a hobby.

I used to attend local computer user group meetings, and I took it as a challenge to make my '81 appear to do as much as the much capable systems like Acorn Atoms. This was before the days of colour computers, when what you saw at these meetings was Commodore Pets, Apple ][s (normally with a black and white TV or monitor because the color (sic) system was not PAL) and Atoms, with the occasional UK101 or Nascom system.

At one such meeting, we had a demo of a prototype BBC micro (with a serial number below 10), and that sold me on spending the equivalent of a month's pay (I could afford this because I lived with my parents for a year after leaving University) to order one as soon as they opened the order line. I still have it, it's got an issue 3 board, and I think the serial number is in the somewhere around 7000.

I still have my '81 as well, but unlike the BEEB, it no longer works.

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: "remember how you had to get the RAM pack balanced just right?" @Jedit

I think that Memotech were the first people to do a shaped RAM pack that conformed to the shape of the rear of the case. A nice piece of kit that was made with a metal case.

They also has a pass-through bus, so that you could plug things in behind the RAM pack. Eventually they produced bank-switched 32 and 64K memory packs, and other 'slices' that could be stacked one next to another for other things like high resolution graphics, and RS232 and Centronics printer ports.

By the time you had bought a number of these, you might as well have bought a more capable machine!

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Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

Re: 20/20

I added an external keyboard (adapted from a Tandy keyboard by repainting the conductive tracks on the flexible membrane and keyboard legends cut out from a magazine picture stuck on to the top of the keys with clear tape), together with a power switch on the keyboard. The ZX81 then sat untouched on a shelf, well away from poking fingers.

Once there and safe from unwanted movement, I added a Quicksilver expansion board and sound card, together with an additional modulator to add the sound to the TV signal. I also hacked around with the internal 1K of memory, mapping it into a different address in the memory when the RAM pack was installed so it could be used, and also added a second 1K of static memory on the ULA/ROM side of the bus isolation resistors which allowed me to use it as a programmable character map by manipulating the I register that was used to hold the page address of the base of the character table.

I never had any problems with it until my (homebrew) power supply popped it's bridge rectifier and fried the rampack!

Good memories.

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Drunk on Friday night? Then YOU probably DIDN'T spot Facebook's privacy tweak

Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

Re: Is this racist... @Mpeler

“History is written by the victors."

Oft used quote, possibly Winston S Churchill, and maybe similar sentiments by others.

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Charles Townes, inventor of the laser and friend to both science and religion, dies

Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

Count

Well, I've got two optical drives and a laser pointer and a mouse.

Wait.

If I count the supercomputers I look after two floors down, there's a about 88,000 (fag packet calculation) individual lasers driving the optical interconnect!

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Virtual Vulture 2 swoops into Spaceport America

Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

Timeframe

Has anybody heard anything about proposed mission dates for Lohan yet? I'm half expecting another kickstarter request to top up the funds because of the time it is taking.

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Microsoft to Samsung: COUGH UP $6.9m in unpaid interest over Android PATENT SPAT

Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

Re: Silverlight

Silverlight was always intended to be an infrastructure lock-in by Microsoft, designed to lever more OS sales and damage the viability of other operating systems/platforms.

Microsoft's collaboration with the Mono team on Moonlight was just lip service. Moonlight was always going to be sufficiently far behind Silverlight to prevent it being a realistic proposition.

So the world dodged a bullet by deciding to go with the possibly inferior but cross-platform javascript instead.

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Scary code of the week: Valve Steam CLEANS Linux PCs (if you're not careful)

Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

Re: What is the best practice here? @AC

I stand by every word I said. I do not think that your post is as clear as you think it is.

You cannot protect from stupidity, and setting world write to both the files and the directories (necessary to delete a file) is something that you only do if you can accept the scenario you outlined. Just because you have "experienced" developers does not mean that they don't follow bad practice ("developers" often play fast and lose with both good practice and security, claiming that both "get in the way" of being productive). And giving world write permissions to files and directories is in almost all cases overkill. Restrict the access by group if you want to share files, and give all the users appropriate group membership. It's been good practice for decades.

You did say "Frankly, if it had been running as root it would probably have trashed (and crashed) the test system before too much external harm was done", but this is probably not true. You did not actually point out that root would not traverse the mount point of the NFS mounted files, but you did say "starting at a root that encompassed the whole NFS-automounted user home directory", implying that it was not the root directory of the system that was being deleted, but just the NFS mounted filesystems.

From personal experience, I have actually seen UNIX systems continue to run damaging processes even after significant parts of their filesystems have been deleted. This is especially true if the command that is doing the damage is running as a monolithic process (like being written in a compiled language or an inclusive interpreted one like Perl, Python or many others) and using direct calls to the OS rather than calling the external utilities with "system".

Many sites have home directories mounted somewhere under /home, so if it were doing a ftw in collating sequence order from the system root, it would come across and traverse /home before it would /usr (the most likely place for missing files to affect a system), so even it it did run from the system root, enough of the system would continue to run whilst /home was traversed. Not so safe.

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Peter Gathercole
Silver badge
FAIL

Re: What is the best practice here? @AC

And the problem here is typified by your statement 'could only delete the files that had suitable "other" permissions'.

Teach your users to set reasonable permissions on files! It goes back to my statement "too many people do not understand the inherent multi-user nature of UNIX-like operating systems".

With regard to running the script as root. You're not that familiar with NFS are you?

If you are using it properly, you will have the NFS export options set to prevent root access as root (it should be the default that you have to override), which is there to prevent exactly this sort of problem. This maps any attempt to use root on the test system into the 'nobody' user on the server, not root. Anybody who sets up a test server to have root permissions over any mounted production filesystem deserves every problem that they get!

There are people who have been using NFS in enterprise environments for in excess of quarter of a century. Do you not think that these problems have not been addressed before now?

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Ex Machina – a smart, suspenseful satire of our technology gods

Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

Re: Actually... @Destroy All Monsters

GiTS is all about the balance between artificial and natural conciousness. It's the main theme from both the film and the TV series, although it's more difficult to see in the original Manga.

There are AIs that aspire to be 'human' with the tachikomas and Project 2501, and AIs masquerading as humans as in Proto. And then you've got cyborgs who wonder whether they still count as human, Motoko and Bateau, with side stories of clones, ghost dubbing onto both clones and artificial bodies, and what being human actually means.

I've not seen this yet, but I seriously doubt that it really brings much more to the subject than what's in fiction already. It will likely be an aspirational story about wanting to be human and the trials it involves like Blade Runner, The Bicentennial Man, Demonseed or even in some respects, Disney's Little Mermaid. But I will look forward to seeing it when it hits Sky or the like.

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Swots explain how to swat CPU SNITCHES

Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

Re: In terms of doing anything useful

It strikes me that it is not feasible to do anything reasonable in real-time.

Chances are the amount of processing to identify an instruction from this information would require a processor much faster than the one being analysed. And even if you know the instruction, you don't know the data that it is operating on.

I suppose that if you could know the sequence of instructions used to encrypt the data, you may, in time and given enough examples of the calculation being performed, be able to reverse engineer it, but as most cryptography algorithms are available, the only thing I think you could work out is which method is being used.

So you can hack the region coding of a DVD or Bluray player like this, but this is nothing like being able to see everything that a computer is doing by it's emissions.

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: Tin Foil is tha answer to the question @theodore

No, that was probably to comply with the FCC emissions regulations for consumer devices in the US, which were a real problem to the early home computer manufacturers.

Different manufacturers cam up with different solutions. Some made their computer's case out of metal. Some put full metal enclosures around the electronics inside a plastic case, and others used conductive paint sprayed onto or metal foil bonded to the inside of the plastic case.

I believe this is the main reason why many UK manufacturers had difficulty selling their systems in the US, because our emission regulations were much less strict.

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Want a cheap Office-er-riffic tablet? Microsoft Windows takes on Android

Peter Gathercole
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Re: Linux?

Locked UEFI bootloader maybe?

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Pull up the Windows 10 duvet and pretend Win8 and Vista were BAD DREAMS

Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

Re: Hellooooo UBUNTU... @IsJustabloke

OK. You're right.

But eventually things have to change. Putting in a way to keep things enough the same to satisfy people like you (and me - I do echo your statement about just using it which is why I use Gnome Flashback), whilst allowing adventurous souls to move forward allows a stepping-stone migration of the sort that Windows 8 did not allow.

This was what I meant by choice.

But I wanted to point out that although Unity on Ubuntu looks like they were following the same approach as Microsoft (take the new interface or don't use Ubuntu), sanity prevailed, and a user can still choose something a little more familiar.

I have two family members for whom a new and different UI is completely inappropriate, but who have to stick with Windows because of software issues. One is my 85 year old father, who is comfortable with the WinXP/7 UI, and would find it too onerous to change (he would probably just stop using the computer), and the other is my wife, and I don't do anything to rock the boat there, for fear of the repercussions!

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Peter Gathercole
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Re: Hellooooo UBUNTU...

It's possible to get something akin to the traditional Gnome 2 interface with the gnome flashback (previously called fallback) UI that is in the main repositories. It's not quite the old interface (it's actually a Gnome 2 UI built in Gnome 3).

And Cinnamon is in the Ubuntu repositories now.

And it is also perfectly possible to use Xubuntu (community Ubuntu distro) or Lubuntu mainstream release if you don't even want Unity installed.

This is what people wanted all the time. Choice. If Microsoft had provided the ability to select a 'traditional' desktop, maybe they would not have had too many people choosing it initially, but there would have been a slow conversion, and they would not have alienated their customer base.

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Polish chap builds computer into a mouse

Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

Microwriter?

Make the mouse a Microwriter or CyKey as well, and you could cover all the bases.

A full computer with keyboard equivalent and mouse that you could hold and use in one hand. Need to work out some display that could be used while mobile. Maybe Glass or another HUD system.

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'If you see a stylus, they BLEW it' – Steve Jobs. REMEMBER, Apple?

Peter Gathercole
Silver badge

@LDS

It's not 'passive', it just doesn't have a battery.

There is an inductive loop in the pen which picks up power from the tablet. I disassembled my daughters Graphire4 pen (the nib pressure sensor tends to stick if you leave it pressing on a surface for an extended time), and there's a significant board with chips on inside.

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