1764 posts • joined 24 Mar 2010
Early 8-bit computers had 8K BASICs or smaller. My home-brew FORTH system will run a 4K FORTH system with ~8K RAM and 1.5MHz clock on a 6809.
8-bit PICS are quirky but plenty powerful enough and they are available in 0.1" pin packages that can still be easily hand-soldered.
Buy from Maplin or RS
Cheap, lots of tools. I mostly write assembler. I've even set one up to emulate a serial port on my homebrew 6809 FORTH machine
Have you a reference ...
for this ?
And indeed I started electronics using them..
but getting much below 22mm proved rather difficult !
Well said - never a moment's problem (running on 6 quite different machines here)
"The sender may have given us a 24hour burst before pointing at another star"
and if we'd replied would they would have had to wait up to a gazillion years to receive it
They all contain
benzene rings but as you say there's a wealth of variation in their properties and hence carcinogenicity.
Certainly my experience at various research labs is ..
that Windows was used by the computer illiterate or for 'corporate ' use (HR, marketing, managers, e-mither ) the hard scientific stuff was done generally on Unix or increasingly Linux.
~1.9 tonnes diesel -> ~ 5.8 tonnes CO2
1.9 tonnes ~ 2300L
~45 L /week of diesel equivalent to ~500 miles in my Touran
You may be certain that the average vehicle on USA roads is not achieving 50 mpg
The point about it
was that an attempt on open source was caught quickly because it was open source.
FUD FUD FUD
What a load of apparently wishful thinking ( and paranoia)
This was from 2003 for grief's sake !!
and then it was stomped on VERY quickly.
Is this the best you can do ?
LibreOffice can apparently handle a million
I used to handle 6-7 million rows in JMP but at that time Excel could manage 64k. JMP ran on Linux as well.
"But it's a little-known fact"
Anyone sitting in a rush-hour traffic jam can see the water running out of the exhaust pipe of any recently started car.
Very roughly from "Foundation .."
"..threw a hyperspace relay and the ship died. For one of the characteristics of the Religion of Science is that its curses really work."
Sorry can't remember it too well and I don't have the books to hand
"people in ancient times"
Well the ancient Greeks knew it was sperical
Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the earth without leaving Egypt in ~250BC
Any seafaring nation would know. Your dad's ship drops over the horizon and a couple of days later he's back - great - well it is if you like him. The Chinese theorists thought the Earth was flat but I bet their sailors had other ideas.
unforgiving of bad code ?!
I had one of the original 8K BASICS ; it had a dreadful garbage collection bug that made string manipulations almost impossible..
split water into Hydrogen and Oxygen does NOT require a catalyst
Electrolysis it doesn't require a catalyst but this isn't electrolysis.
If we're being pedantic a catalyst does NOT alter an equilibrium only the kinetics.
2H2 + O2 > 2H2O + energy : the equilibrium lies heavily to the right, a catalyst allows the reaction to proceed usefully at low temperatures rather than needing a match - the match will give rather a large increase in rate !!
They've created a bloody artificial leaf!
This is *very* roughly the equivalent of the first stage of photosynthesis where light energy is captured and used to generate high-energy chemical species that are then used to power a complex series of chemical transformations that result in carbohydrates.
This is just 2H20 + light > 2H2 + 02 mediated ( i.e. kinetics accelerated) by a catalyst
In electrochemical cells
These days, I think, a superacid conductive membrane ("nafion" ?) is used to separate the cathode/anode compartment so little or no mixing of hydrogen/oxygen. This would seem rather difficult to adapt as presumably the hydrogen/oxgen is being emitted all over the surface.
As for the ultimate feasibilty I and others have already commented on the max. output from a playing card sized device.
No, of course it's not photosynthesis
"energy produces from the O2/H2 burns"
It can't produce any more than the incident solar energy which it's already been pointed out is max. ~~1 kW / square metre of card area unless some mirror system etc is used.
To the ones worrying about the amount of water I'd guess a very thin layer over the card is all that's required. The major problem looks to be the explosive potential of the hydrogen/oxygen gas mix
Here's a simple calculation
Peak sunlight ~~ 1kW/m^2
Card is ~4e-3 m^2 ( I assume 4cm * 10cm - don't play cards )
*Assuming 100% efficiency*
That's an output of 4 W - turning it into hydrogen and then electricity can only lower the potential power.
Read about Pittsburgh SC's Blacklight
Blacklight, the World’s Largest Coherent Shared-Memory Computing System, is Up and Running at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center
Featuring 512 eight-core Intel Xeon 7500 (Nehalem) processors (4,096 cores) with 32 terabytes of memory, Blacklight is partitioned into two connected 16-terabyte coherent shared-memory systems — creating the two largest coherent shared-memory systems in the world.
Running 2 Linux images on 2048 cores each
Earliest ref. I can find (quickly) is from1985 ...
Physics and Astronomy
Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves
Volume 21, Number 4, 401-403, DOI: 10.1007/BF01463407
Effect of a constant electrical field on combustion of a propane-butane mixture with air
G. A. Gulyaev, G. A. Popkov and Yu. N. Shebeko
Some of the refs. are a lot older
"I wonder what the equivalent of the BSOD is?"
Too much ..
time on their hands.
Too much money. Er, no,wait...
if you live in them !
Why don't they build ..
a tunnel ?
Xenon is "inoffensive
"now turned into inoffensive Xenon"
Iodine-131 decays to Xenon-131 by beta decay.
Xe-131 is stable (i.e NON-radioactive) and the only hazard if concentrated is anesthesia or asphyxiation. At the truly minute amounts present in the water this is impossible.
What the hell the compounds of Xenon have to do with this ?
Any gas that isn't oxygen is an asphyxiant if it's not mixed with sufficient oxygen
Have opinions, but don't try and BS with 'facts' that aren't and science you clearly don't understand
" one tends to get a breakdown............ hydrogen and oxygen"
NO! Not again ! One does not !
Water reacting with hot zirconium of the fuel rod assemblies to generate hydrogen
The thermodynamics of water are almost totally in the direction of water unless the temperatures are VERY high.
Think - what does a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen do when you apply a match
I've posted this elsewhere but after Chernobyl the pharmaceutical research site I worked at in NW England ( >2000 km) from Chernobyl, spotted the radiation very quickly as it was concentrated on the ventilation filters. The news got around VERY quickly.
I had to correct them recently
They had a post on the Japan feed that actually, to anyone with even half a brain, was about evacuating Brits from Bahrain !
"because seen from outside the universe"
I take my hat off to you - what a hitchhiker !
Standard out-of-the-box on OpenSUSE
firefox: ELF 64-bit LSB executable, x86-64,
Re : True
Unless you want to run the moon landing game - I think that took almost all ( maybe 248 bytes ?)
That seems highly suspect
You can't keep radiation levels a secret !
All sorts of people will be measuring, near and far. After Chernobyl, for example, the pharmaceutical research site I worked at in England ( >2000km away) spotted the abnormal levels very quickly because they were concentrated on ventilation filters. It's so easy to detect extremely low levels of ionizing radiation
For the last time !!
"Steam which has been superheated as in a reactor core can break up into hydrogen and oxygen"
NO IT CAN'T
People have been going 2H20 > O2 +2H2
The equilibrium for this reaction lies HEAVILY to the left at reasonable temperatures
Water only dissociates to 3% hydrogen 97 % water at 2000 C . The water has to react with something to generate significant amounts of hydrogen This would seem to be zirconium in the fuel rod casings by all accounts
why they overheated? → #
The primary reaction has shutdown but highly radioactive waste products with very short-half-lives generate a considerable amount of heat as they decay. Without cooling, depending on the reactor design this can lead to overheating and potentially melting
It's not just dissocation of water.
The equilibrium even at 2000 C is ~3% hydrogen 97 % water. Catalysts don't affect equilibria only rate. The hydrogen is being produced in a chemical reaction - probably zirconium fuel rod components reacting at high temperatures with water/steam
Been running it since the early SuSe distros. Rock solid - running on 6 machines at the moment on 11.2
Re : Garbage? #
He's quite correct water doesn't break down appreciably even at 2000 C. Even then it's in equilibrium with only a small percentage of free hydrogen/oxygen.
The only way of generating sig. free hydrogen is to react the water with some material such as zirconium as others have mentioned
Every time you heat dust it gives a yellow flame due yto the amounts of sodium salts around. Anyone who has banged a lab bench with a bunsen burner running will have seen that.
No it's not.
Thermolysis of water proceeds to only a small percentage even at ~2000 C.
The hydrogen is coming from something, probably metal, reacting with the steam/water at high temp.
As I understand it
You don't !
where is the Hydrogen coming from?
I'd guess it's some component of the fuel rod assembly reacting at high temperature with steam
solar has the side effect of trying to give us all skin cancer.
The BBC are reporting..
that they did have diesel generators but these failed after (?) hours.
What make you think ..
That filing a patent is easy. In the UK & EU patent filings are examined. The documents are detailed and extremely tedious and take a large chunk out of ones working life.
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