* Posts by Martin an gof

102 posts • joined 27 Jan 2010

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IoT baby monitors STILL revealing live streams of sleeping kids

Martin an gof

Re: The illusion of safety

everything hooked up to your local WiFi - you can understand how many people might not realise that the internet is a factor, or even consider that there may be security implications

Why should they? If I plug anything into my LAN (or connect via WiFi), I don't expect anything to be able to connect to it from the internet, unless I set up port forwarding.

Because most people have never heard of UPnP, let alone turned it off.

M.

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So unfair! Teachers know what’s happening on students' fondleslabs

Martin an gof

To top it off, they acknowledge the mistakes, doff said cap and then repeat the mistakes a week later. This from a well performing ofstead inspected school. So if the teachers cannot produce mistake free homework for the pupil's, how much faith do you think I have in them actually teaching anything apart from how to be a victim of society.

Leaving aside your own grammar, last year's end-of-year reports from our (top-performing, apparently) secondary school were an utter mess. I can't get on with the auto-generated sentences anyway, but the number of boys who had "she has done well at..." (and vice-versa) in their reports was astounding. These and other mistakes made it obvious that no-one had even glanced through the reports before sending them home. Likewise formal complaints to the school from us and other parents resulted in replies which boiled down to "we produced the reports, why are you complaining?"

Don't get me started on the inconsistency of target setting.

Couldn't agree more with your sentiment "if the teachers cannot produce mistake-free <whatever>".

This year's reports were a lot better, but there has been a minor management reshuffle in the meantime

M.

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Have an iPhone? Mac? Just about anything else Apple flogs? Patch now

Martin an gof
Unhappy

Re: " i " is for Indignant

This article says that Apple is providing patches all the way back to Mountain Lion (3 years old). How is that forcing you to upgrade to Yosemite?

How about in my case because the Wife has a 32-bit Intel Macmini which cannot take an OS beyond 10.6 Snow Leopard. How the heck am I supposed to keep Safari (or whatever) patched on that?

Mother has a still-working PPC Macmini, with 10.3 (Panther). While it could update to 10.4 (Tiger) (but no further) a: you can't get the install media and b: what would be the point? As it happens she has a newer machine now, but the PPC hasn't quite been retired yet.

This is the reason Apple-bashing happens. Whoever decided that 4 or 5 years is a suitable lifespan for computer hardware needs to take a look inside my piggybank and realise that I simply can't afford to buy a new computer every 3 or 4 years when the existing one works perfectly well.

Personally I not only use generic x86 hardware (with OpenSuse as it happens) which can be upgraded / replaced part-by-part as necessary(*) but I also do very nearly all of my emailling and word processing on a 21-year-old Acorn RiscPC. It "just works".

Hwyl!

(*)on which subject, my EeePC has hardware comparable to the 32-bit Intel Macmini, all bar an Atom instead of a Pentium. OpenSuse's 32-bit version runs perfectly well and is still not only receiving security updates but software updates too.

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Typewriters suck. Yet we're infinitely richer for those irritating machines

Martin an gof

Running an underground (well close to the ground) magazine at school

I did that too, although in my case it was a Gestetner machine so none of your lovely Roneo spirit-ink. I discovered that the stencils could not only be used in a typewriter, but even better in a dot-matrix printer. This worked just as well with the ribbon in as out (I initially thought it would have to be ribbonless) so an old dry ribbon was saved for the purpose of reducing the risk of clogging the pins.

Persuaded the school IT teacher to buy a copy of AMX Pagemaker (later Stop Press) for the BBC Micros and our magazine looked a million times better than the "official" school rag, which was photocopied from pasted-up typewritten slips.

Eight A4 pages on a double-sided single-density 80 track 5¼" floppy disc and about 20 minutes to print each one onto the stencil. After that though, easily 30 - 45 pages a minute.

The Gestetner was the church's - the school didn't take kindly to our "journalism".

All I have to do now is work out how to recover those files from the floppies, which are still in a cupboard upstairs (I did try them in the BBC a couple of years ago and they did work!)

M.

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Introducing the Asus VivoMini UN42 – a pint-sized PC, literally

Martin an gof

Re: For space retrieval hints.

I don't know why they have 2 sizes, is it 14 or 9.52 !

My understanding was that the smaller number is the actual sizes of the files, while the larger number is the amount of disc space they use up due to many of the files being smaller than (or not a clean multiple of) the File Allocation Unit size. For example, if the FAU is 1Mbyte then any file smaller than 1Mbyte will actually take up a whole 1Mbyte on the disc which could lead to a lot of wasted space.

Modern file systems have ways to reduce this problem but I think it's still something of an issue and since Windows has a heck of a lot of small files, it could account for most (all?) of the discrepancy you see.

Hwyl!

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Martin an gof

Re: Linux?

a: run flightradar24.com smoothly and b: play home movies smoothly across the network." -- Martin an Gof

I've got (a) and (b) working pretty well on a Raspberry Pi2.

Really? A Pi was my first thought but I couldn't get FR24 running on my Pi, but it's a model B and I haven't got around to trying it on the Pi2 yet. What web browser are you using? I assumed it was lack of Javascript causing Google Maps integration to barf that was the problem, maybe it was just that the Pi was a bit too slow and I didn't wait long enough.

The home movies thing can presumably be sorted out with XMBC/Kodi/RaspBMC which is what I was intending to do on an x86 box anyway. The trick will be making it usable for my dad who has never, as far as I know, picked up a computer mouse in his life. He's pretty handy with the teletext though, and my mum's fairly computer savvy. It will really have to be as simple as two big icons, click one for FR24, click the other for home movies.

I was planning to install a receiver anyway (SDR+Pi) so even if I can't make it work as a browser it wouldn't be wasted.

As for £250 being a bit steep, I could get it down a bit but I wanted a half decent processor (the one I listed is 4 core 2GHz), I'd be installing 4GB of RAM (could get away with 2), an HDD in place of the SSD would also save a few pennies and not installing an optical drive would also shave a bit off, but nothing would beat £50 for a Pi, case and wireless keyboard. If I power the Pi from the TV's USB (done that at work a couple of times) I even save a couple of quid on a PSU.

So long as it's snappy enough that my dad doesn't get frustrated waiting for it to load up - he's pretty awful like that. I'll have to experiment!

Hwyl!

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Martin an gof

Re: Linux?

AFAIR a full install of Xubuntu is 4GB and will run quite nicely on an Asus eeePC 900

I have a full install of OpenSuse 13.1 (KDE desktop) on my Eeepc 901 (Atom) in 2GB RAM. In fact I'm typing this reply on it now. A little slower to start up than my A10+8GB desktop, but perfectly usable. The install + apps takes about 6GB at the moment which considering that the apps include Libre Office, Kdenlive (for emergency use only!), Handbrake, Rosegarden, a couple of games and all the usual stuff isn't half bad and leaves 8 or 9GB or so of the SSD free for data.

Bought the wife a cheap laptop recently. Impossible to find one without Windows so before the thing had even been plugged in to charge up, out came the small and slow HDD and in went a Samsung 850 EVO with OpenSuse 13.2.

On the other hand, I've been looking to build a small under-the-tv unit for my dad. My current parts list comes to £250 based around this case and an AMD Athlon 5350 or its 1.6GHz, slightly cheaper sibling. The barebones version of this Asus is very tempting as an alternative, but only if I can make it a: run flightradar24.com smoothly and b: play home movies smoothly across the network.

Hwyl!

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Keep up, boyos! 20k Win XP PCs still in use by NHS in Wales

Martin an gof

Nid yr NHS yw'r unig lle...

Cymraeg gweddol yn yr erthygl, ond y gwaethaf gall Google Translate ei wneud gan Mr. A. Coward.

Ta beth, mae 'da ni dwsinau o gyfrifiaduron XP yn fy man gwaith, ond nid yw yr un ohonynt yn cysylltu tu allan i'r adeilad.

Mae gennym un Server 2012, ond dim ond oherwydd bu farw un o'r rhai 2003 yn diweddar.

:-)

Hwyl!

M.

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Samsung looks into spam ads appearing on Brits' smart TVs

Martin an gof

Re: front projection

I got this 720p SONY 3LCD one off ebay for a hundred quid.

LCD projectors give nice images when new, but the panels have lifespans of the order of (usually) no more than 5,000 hours, and the colour filters sometimes go sooner. Whether 5,000 hours is a problem for you depends on how much TV you watch, and at £100 you probably won't complain if it only lasts a couple more years.

One of the first things I had to tell my current employers when I started was that the projectors they'd spent £15,000 a piece on just three years before were uneconomical to repair; £5,000 for a new "optical block" (and that was without considering the dead PSUs, dying fans etc.) instead bought us some gorgeous DLP projectors that were brighter (about 6,000 lumen against 3,500 lumen), cheaper to run (lamps cost the same but lasted twice as long), more resilient (two lamps means that if one pops early the thing will carry on with one), more manageable (net connected, talk PJLink, can send emails for certain triggers) and have so far done 20,000 hours without a problem apart from one unit that has a small block of dead pixels.

On top of that I can operate them in "low power" mode because even then they are still brigher than the originals, it makes the lamps last three times as long as the original projectors and it gives even more resilience because if a lamp fails I can put the other up to full power and (partly) compensate.

Sorry, didn't mean to write all of that. Projectors are part of my daily life and I've seen too many people caught out by LCD units. Yes, single-chip DLP units can suffer the "rainbow effect" but apart from that they are in nearly every way "better" than LCD.

But my specific ones cost a lot more than £100!

M.

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Martin an gof

Re: Easily solved.

> Buy a traditional, dumb model instead.

Easier said than done

...

A brief shindig through the listings at John Lewis tells me that if I want something of roughly equivalent spec (basically a screen with an HDMI connection to be plugged into more capable devices), only 6 out of 28 didn't have wifi or smart features built in

Just disable the WiFi and don't plug in the Ethernet cable?(*)

Or do what I may well do and buy a large(**) computer monitor or "commercial display". Sound comes from the HiFi, TV from the external receiver. The monitor never needs to be anything more than a monitor. This is the way I'm using my Sony Trinitron, and will do until it dies as I've yet to meet an LCD display that can do the same job.

Separate components means, a: I'm not bereft of entertainment if one dies, and b: I can replace or upgrade a component at a time as funds allow

Examples: NEC or SONY.

Actually, not sure about that Sony as it seems to be a smart TV with the tuner taken out! Nevertheless, you get the point.

There are other caveats - computer monitors often can't do aspect ratio switching (handy if, like me, you have a library of old VHS or Laserdiscs that you don't want to lose), occasionally they can't do 50Hz/25Hz (and rarely 24Hz), they usually have a limited number of inputs (but many tuners will be able to do HDMI switching anyway) and you'll either have to get out of your chair to hit the power switch or just rely on it going to "sleep" when the tuner goes into standby. Computer monitors rarely have composite or s-video inputs but those called "commercial displays" usually do, and often also do most of the "TV-like" stuff that computer monitors can't.

Other than that, you can actually get a better picture, particularly on those displays which are designed for public advertising or the like which can have much better viewing angles than domestic TVs, especially those which can operate in "portrait" as well as "landscape" mode.

M.

(*)Though I do have a cheap smart Philips TV in the kitchen and I'm convinced that the reason it takes - literally - a whole minute to start up sometimes is because it's looking desperately for a network and not finding one. The Trinitron is slower to start up than when it was new, but there's a usable picture on screen after about 10 seconds, and I've yet to meet an LCD computer monitor that takes more than 5 or 6 seconds to get from "off" to "picture", some are a lot quicker.

(**)By "large" I mean anything over about 26". My Trinitron is 23" and just about big enough for the living room (it was the smallest widescreen available when I bought it) and I really can't see the point of anything bigger than 40" in most living rooms.

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Techies told to GO FORTH AND MULTIPLY by Microsoft, Netflix

Martin an gof

Catch-up

Without seeing the detail of the deal, isn't this the sort of thing that employees in more enlightened nations than the US have been legally entitled to for many, many years? That said in the UK the statutory pay arrangements aren't quite so generous.

Are normal salaries in the US significantly higher than those in the UK, enough to cover for things like lack of the NHS and the need to save up to cope with unpaid leave?

M.

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Boffins get the inside dope, craft white laser

Martin an gof

Re: Panasonic make "Laser" projectors

I've changed to LED house lighting (not the whole house but most of it) and it's much better than the CFL lights they replaced.

Of course, that's an opinion. I can only go by what I've experienced. CFL is a mature technology and - startup aside (most CFLs still take a half second to come on, and many still need a few seconds to "warm up") - I prefer CFLs, at least for "standard" fittings. LEDs work much better in the smaller fittings, undercupboard lighting, that sort of thing.

We have a heck of a lot of LED lighting at work and have replaced most CFLs, particularly in GU10-style fittings. What we have noticed is that the stated lifespan is nowhere near accurate. The LEDs themselves are fine, but the power supplies are awful and we get a lot of premature failures, very nearly all of which are due to dead power supplies. This is true of "consumer type" GU10 fittings as much as it is of "industrial" fittings costing perhaps a couple of hundred pounds.

M.

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Martin an gof
Boffin

Panasonic make "Laser" projectors

They have essentially two models in their "Solid Shine" range. One is actually two LEDs (red, blue) and a laser (blue with a green phosphor):

PT-RZ470

Being a DLP projector, having three "fast" light sources saves you from the dreaded colour wheel (rainbow effect) or from having to have three DLP chips (expensive, and the colour filters have a short lifespan).

The other seems to have a cluster of Lasers (no idea of the colour) shining on a single phosphor wheel which, I assume, produces a mixture of colours. This light is then sent through a "virtually segmented" colour wheel. No, I don't know what that means either.

PT-RZ670

We have a couple of the LED/Laser projectors where I work. We use them for 3D film showings where the fact that they are degrading slowly together is a benefit (traditional lamps get difficult to calibrate, especially if they are different ages). I'm looking at buying a few of the Laser-only projectors for a side-by-side application. They're a lot more expensive up front than their traditionally-lamped equivalent, but you do save about 10 lamp changes (2,000 hour lamps) over the lifespan.

Lasers in the house? Might work with phosphors, but I'm not a huge fan of LED domestic lighting yet, and don't get me started on those awful flickering LED tail lamps on cars!

M.

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Jeep hackers broke DMCA, says EFF, and that's stupid

Martin an gof
Alert

Re: It's already happening...

So that's fun then. How long before the first crash caused by an Internet connectivity or even DAB radio hack?

What, you mean like this one, heard on PM last night?

M.

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Let me PLUG that up there, love. It’s perfectly standaAAARGH!

Martin an gof

Re: Drains

My understanding is that rainwater downspouts must not be connected into the foul sewer (assuming that's what you mean by "drain")

In the UK, generally in new builds they are not, but in a development they are usually connected to a separate drainage system that goes to a communal disposal system rather than individual soakaways at each house. It might be a giant soakaway, but in heavy clay areas that's not always possible so it might just go to a huge "interceptor" tank which releases the water at an agreed, controlled rate to whatever the water board provides.

Older houses do often connect rainwater to the sewer. This is known as a "combined" system and new connections to it, even if it isn't overloaded, are usually discouraged. There is just such a combined drain running through our village but our 1960s houses have individual soakaways which, given that we are on heavy clay soil, are somewhat less than effective. In our case I intercept the downpipes into water butts and those overflow into a "stream" at the bottom of the garden, which may not be entirely what the waterboard wants but certainly beats our garden overflowing into next door's everytime there's a storm.

When we rebuild I intend to install rainwater harvesting to feed the 5 toilets, but I will also have to re-build the soakaway for the overflow.

Here's a point that not many are aware of; if your rain does go to a soakaway on your premises, and there is no runoff from your land onto (say) the road where someone else has to deal with it, then you can apply to have your water bill reduced. Last time we looked even though nearly all our rain runs off to the soakaway or the stream, the small amount that our road-sloping driveway collects counted against us getting this discount.

M.

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Martin an gof

'Twas on a Monday morning when the gas man came to call

Flanders and Swann, The Gas Man Cometh or a poor copy on YouTube.

M.

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Martin an gof

Re: Education

They wouldn't forget to make sure that one side of the building wasn't made entirely of south facing windows would they? Well often enough they did. On the other hand, sometimes they did put blinds in place.

Or the school around here, built in the 1990s, where the nice-looking be-windowed "front", designed to be south-ish, facing the road and to provide a posh main entrance was instead built facing into the side of a hill, meaning that the classrooms were gloomy, the back door became the main entrance, and all you could see from the road was a vast expanse of roof, the toilet windows and the kitchen extractor.

It appears that the Wayback Machine has broken the last paragraph on this site. Darn:

Cwm Aber Juniors

M.

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Martin an gof
Unhappy

Re: Spurs - In Wales

It does seem common. When I was a self-employed electrician (Valleys area) I saw a lot of these. It really annoys a householder if you tell them their installation wouldn't pass modern regulations because their cooker switch needs moving 18 inches to the left (or whatever), especially when the cable is plastered into the wall and because of having-to-run-directly regulations, moving the switch would mean redecorating the kitchen, not to mention probably lifting the floor in a bedroom in order to get at the cable.

Not so much a problem if all you are doing is fitting a new cooker, because there isn't (or wasn't then) an absolute requirement to bring the thing up to the latest spec, just because you are renewing the appliance.

The people who got most annoyed were those who had been told by their insurers (or whoever) to have a new consumer unit fitted in place of the rewireable one from 1953, priced up a new unit at Screwfix and thought they could get the whole job done in a day for £150. Then I'd come in and price the CU at £60, labour at £150 a day (so far so good) but then quote three days or more because of upgrading the earth (also involved a visit from Western Power), carrying out bonding work, replacing complete lighting circuits due to a lack of earth conductor (because householder can't go back to plastic fittings), re-jigging the sockets to remove spurs-on-spurs, tracing and fixing a broken ring (or converting to radial by downgrading and disconnecting) and completely re-wiring the kitchen because the fitters had (among other things) moved the cooker point by dint of burying a chocolate block in the wall where the old point was, running at 90 degrees to the new location and then plastering and tiling over the lot.

And I'm not remembering one particularly bad job there - in the five years I did this work barely a month went by when I didn't meet something like the above and in at least half the cases the reply I got to my quote was either "I won't bother then" or "my mate says he'll do it for fifty quid".

The sad thing is that the fitters will often get away with it:

BBC News 12 October 2004

Telegraph, 12 October 2004

A clear case of kitchen fitters bodging the job but if you read the articles it is the householder who is blamed and the death is "accidental" not "negligence".

M.

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Samsung caught disabling Windows Update to run its own bloatware

Martin an gof

Re: I still believe Microsoft should stop

on my new Acer Aspire laptop the track pad is barely usable

Not sure if this is relevant to you but I've just bought an Aspire. OpenSuse didn't even recognise that there was a touchpad until I went into the BIOS and turned off the "enable fancy touchpad features" setting which apparently needs some kind of esoteric I2C driver in order to work. Now the touchpad works exactly as I'd expect, multi gestures and all.

Maybe Windows would prefer that too - and run the touchpad perfectly well under a generic HID driver? Have to admit that the first thing I did with the Aspire was pop the bottom off, ditch the not-brilliant HDD and install OpenSuse on an SSD. I'm not entirely happy with the video driver; there's a lot of weirdness going on when the thing boots, but once booted it's fine, and I can always play around.

M.

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Brace yourself, planet Earth, says Nokia CEO – our phones ARE coming back from mid-2016

Martin an gof

Re: Why smartphones?

I actually had a second thought (thanks everyone for all the upvotes, by the way, I knew I wasn't the only one thinking like this). What would really get a revitalised Nokia noticed would be a phone in a similar form-factor to the Psion Series 5 with all the great applications the S3 and S5 had - updated of course. Stick a smallish screen on the outer case with phone buttons, make it fractionally smaller all around so it can be held one-handed when closed, and inside stick a larger colour touchscreen with proper keyboard (there has been nothing to touch the Series 5 keyboard since).

Hmm... sounds a bit like the Communicator in some ways, but the S5 form factor was much nicer, particularly the keyboard.

M.

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Martin an gof

Re: Meh.

Erm, remind me what you have to do when setting up an Android or Apple phone?

Nope, never had to register an email address on my Android phone. Then again, I've never felt the need to use whatever passes for an App Store on Android either - any additional apps I've installed have all been from .apk files downloaded in the conventional way from conventional websites.

Oh, and the couple of OS updates that have been available for the phone have appeared as expected too.

M.

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Martin an gof
Go

Why smartphones?

Frankly I'd be happy if Nokia produced a couple of cracking "feature" phones and a few solid "dumb"(ish) phones, like updated models of some of their past truimphs. Things with keyboards (real buttons for answering and hanging up!), decent cameras, easy UI, not stupidly-huge screens, a fortnight on standby, sensible SIM-free price and good call quality above all else. Tethering and/or mobile hotspot to a laptop/tablet can take care of the things smartphones can do on the rare occasions I need to do them.

I miss, terribly, mid-range feature phones...

M.

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The watts in a box that kept West London's lights on

Martin an gof

Re: UPS/gensets

A friend in the broadcast biz had a nasty surprise when his genset didn't crank over.

When I worked at a radio station, our generator never cranked over. Until we were taken over by a bigger, more cash-rich company, our power backup consisted of a phonecall to the pager, a dash down to the studios, wheeling out the two-cylinder 10kVA Diesel generator, pulling the big "Frankenstein" switch to isolate all non-essential systems and hand cranking the beast.

Hand cranking a Diesel is not fun. The best thing was to have someone else hold open the "cocks" on the cylinders and get up to speed without compression.

The new owners bought an auto-start genset that could power the whole building and we tested it a couple of times a year. Glad to see the back of the Diesel to be honest.

M.

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Martin an gof

Small village, small generator

I live in a small village (200 properties). NPG had generators on site and running within a few hours when a major disruption occurred.

Our hamlet - 80-ish dwellings, no pub, no shop - is on the end of a long overhead line. We suffer from a fair number of short power cuts, but only on a couple of occasions have they (Western Power) brought in a generator.

The most memorable of these was a few years back when they were moving and renewing the single pole-mounted transformer that serves the entire hamlet in order to clear a building plot. Warning letters were sent out and at the appointed hour the power went off briefly while they disconnected the old transformer and connected up the generator.

Everything was fine until tea time. Obviously WPD hadn't realised that since gas only came to the village relatively recently many of the houses still cook on electric cookers and, this being late autumn (IIRC), the ones with electric heating started trying to warm up.

Said generator started sounding a bit strained, and then tripped out leaving us with a half-cooked pan of chips which we took to the neighbours and finished off on their gas cooker.

Power stayed off for perhaps three hours after that as the engineers couldn't chance resetting the genny.

Since then the power has been more reliable, but we still get perhaps three or four short power cuts a year, rarely more than a few minutes, so as well as the small UPS I've long had installed on the computers (note: stepped sine-wave UPSes will not run the pump in a central heating boiler!) I now have a chunkier pure-sine UPS running among other things the printer, which really doesn't like power cuts.

To get back to the OP's point - that support in London is likely to be more forthcoming - I think the answer is "it depends". I would imagine that if there were an outage in the nearby town (population 30,000+) that also took us out, in the case of a lack of generators they would get priority and we'd be breaking out the candles and torches. If there were a problem affecting half of Cardiff as well, then those 30,000 residents would also be searching for the matches.

M.

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It’s Adobe’s Creative Cloud TITSUP birthday. Ease the pain with its RGB-wrangling rivals

Martin an gof

Different angle

Disclaimer: I take photos but I am in no way "artistic" and Photoshop and its ilk confuse the heck out of me. GIMP is a nightmare.

I use Xara Designer Pro for my retouching needs. At its heart it's a vector drawing application (from the company that brought you Artworks on Risc OS, so it could be said to be a distant relative of Acorn's Draw and can indeed still import Draw and Artworks files) but it has a reasonable range of photo retouching tools too. Some of the example files provided date all the way back to Artworks.

It was part of the Corel stable at one point, but it was brought back out before Corel could kill it off altogether.

Its price puts it nearer Photoshop territory than Paintshop Pro, though if photo manipulation is the main consideration, £50 will buy you a version with most of the vector and text editing elements cut down.

Xara is the main reason why my work computer still dual-boots Windows and Linux. I do most of my "work" in Linux these days, but Xara is Windows-only.

M.

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Tesla Powerwall: not much cheaper and also a bit wimpier than existing batteries

Martin an gof
Boffin

Re: Inverter?

With regard to the oven. A standard electric oven alone will have a 2kW heating element, or possibly 3kW. Maybe a second such element for the grill function. Because they are thermostatically controlled, and unlikely to be on at the same time many ovens can be run from a standard 13A socket, or fused spur unit.

An electric cooker on the other hand may well consist of:

1x 3kW ring

2x 2kW rings

1x 1 or 1.5kW ring

1x 2kW oven element

1x 2kW grill element

AND a 13A socket (common in the UK) run from the same circuit

With out applying diversity this little lot adds up to 15kW or so, which implies a 65A circuit at 230V. This would be very expensive in cable alone. Diversity recognises the thermostats and the fact that it will never all be on at the same time and hence you can get away with a 30A (fuse) or 32A (MCB) circuit.

Because people have different preferences it is common in the UK to have a 32A "cooker outlet" in the kitchen, even if you have a gas cooker, and even if all you have is a single electric fan oven at 2kW you will often find it is powered from this outlet.

M.

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Martin an gof
Boffin

@dom

100A is common for new installations these days, but 80A is common and 60A is very common for houses built before perhaps the mid 1980s. I even saw a couple of 40A "main cutouts" in my electrician-ing days.

There's quite a nice section in "the regs" about maximum demand and diversity. Essentially, while you can quite safely say that it's unlikely that anyone would have two 2kW fan heaters, the Sunday roast, the washing machine, dishwasher, lawnmower and 10kW shower all running at the same time, it's actually possible that some of that will happen.

There are three things that all the coverage seems to have missed. I'm not sure if the first or second apply in the US, but I'm certain the last will.

Firstly note that practically all existing inverter systems (solar PV) will switch off if the grid supply fails, even on the sunniest days when the panels might be generating a couple of kW. This is simply because the regulations governing "off grid" systems are an order of magnitude more difficult to comply with than "feed-in" systems. While Musk's battery pack potentially could act as a UPS for your house, I suspect that the cost of an installation that meets regulations will make the $3,500 purchase price look cheap.

Secondly, this is not a money-saving exercise. Plain fact is that even with today's reduced "feed in" tariffs, I suspect it's much more economically viable to use the grid as your "storage" mechanism rather than keeping it locally.

Lastly, at 2kW continuous output, if the thing does not disconnect in the event of a failure of grid supply you will have to engineer-in some kind of load shedding. The simplest way to do this would be to connect the output of this battery pack to a select number of low-power circuits, probably the lighting and the one that feeds the boiler and heating pumps. Even if you want to take a chance and connect it to one or more sockets circuits, you will definitely have to isolate the system from the circuits providing power to your cooker, your electric shower and any permanent electric heating appliances. Again, re-arranging the distribution in your house in this way will cost.

M.

7
1
Martin an gof

Re: Just add capacitors

Tesla just need to add some capacitor into the mix to cope with short term peak loads of kettle / toaster etc

I realise that in the US they are saddled with a domestic electrical system that can't easily supply high power to point loads, but 1.5kW for a kettle as mentioned in the article is very, very rare in the UK and, I suspect, in Europe and most of the rest of the 220V+ world.

A cheap electric kettle here would be 2kW with many available at 2.5kW and a not inconsiderable number at 3kW. Half the time to boil the same amount of water and probably fractionally more efficient because of that.

Example: a £5 kettle rated at 2.2kW.

I'd like to see the capacitor bank that can supply 3kW for 3 minutes :-)

8
0

Good luck displacing Windows 7, Microsoft, it's still growing

Martin an gof
Unhappy

Re: What about non-connected computers?

If all you need is XP/7 application support, and not special hardware, then running Windows in a VM is a good solution.

It's a thought, but there are a couple of things preventing that here, I think. First is the hardware. Although it is being replaced as it fails, we still have a good percentage of our machines running 3GHz 32-bit single-core Pentium 4s without virtualisation support in 1GB of RAM. Many of the rest are Core 2 Duos with 2GB, which is better, and the current batch of replacement hardware is AMD A8-based :-)

I've never used a VM in anger, so my second potential problem is that these are machines running interactive software which works best with graphics hardware that can provide a moderate amount of 2D and video decode in hardware. Does that sort of thing work via a VM, or do you just get a framebuffer?

Oh and "special hardware". Yes, come to think of it, we do have a couple of bits, most notable of which are some USB-based hardware key dongles without which the driver for a particular Firewire-attached device won't load.

The installation is 10 years old this year and there has never been a proper replacement plan, nor a migration strategy. In the current financial climate we're just going to have to carry on replacing bits as they fail and hoping we can keep XP alive and safe, but I doubt we'll be the last people on earth using it...

M.

0
0
Martin an gof

What about non-connected computers?

Maybe we're an exception, but we have a lot of XP machines that have simply been isolated from t'internet and would never show on these counters. Perhaps there are others out there doing the same thing and this is part of the reason why the "fall" in XP usage isn't completely matched by a rise in W7 or W8?

For us it's mainly a case of "if it ain't broke, don't fix it". The things work perfectly well under XP, the hardware would struggle in some cases to run W7 and some of the proprietary software we run doesn't work too well under W7.

That said, we are just now beginning to find that if we are replacing hardware, getting the drivers for XP can be difficult. At some point we will have to develop a taste for lead and cordite. Just not yet, please?

This sort of "census" doesn't tell the whole story by a long way.

8
0

Fandroids, take your phone's antivirus and burn it – Android bod

Martin an gof
Unhappy

Re: weekly scanning

My wife has a 'dumb' Nokia with forever battery life, but zero frills. You might find something like that (or in between) more attractive

Yes, I would find something like that (the "in between" - what used to be called a "feature phone") more attractive but there's absolutely zip available on the market these days. I hate touchscreen keyboards but I do need a half-decent "snapshot" camera. The camera in the G is the worst I have had for some time, but it's a heck of a lot better than can be found in your average "dumb phone" these days. I do appreciate having a browser available, I have been known to tether my EeePC when away, and I do make occasional use of GPS so a truly "dumb" phone won't cut the mustard. Actually, I could probably live without the GPS, but it's a "nice to have".

Put it this way, the two phones which best matched our needs over the last few years have been the Sony Ericsson K800i and the Nokia 6220 Classic. Both had GPS, both could run Opera and both would last at least a week on a charge without taking any special precautions. Video taken by the Moto G trumps either of those (especially the K800's QCIF) but its still photographs don't. It's quite nice to read The Register on a larger screen, but for sheer usability as a flippin' phone for phonecalls and texts...

Reminds me of the discussion recently about simple portable computing devices. I didn't chip in to that discussion, but I would definitely be in the market for an updated clone of the Psion Series 5. I completed a PGCE in 2000 with one of those as my only computing device. The form factor was great, but it was the OS that made the device work - instant on and a week of essay writing and the like from a pair of AAs.

M.

0
0
Martin an gof

Re: weekly scanning

Not rooted original Moto G. First thing I did was go through all the running services/apps and disable any that didn't seem to impact on the use of the phone as a phone. WiFi off, except for downloading OS updates, GPS off, location tracking off, and the only apps I've installed have both been "sideloaded" so Play Store has never even been opened on my machine. Has to be noted that the G has a fairly "bare" Android to start with - hardly any "bloatware".

I don't see network activity that I can't track down to legitimate users and I'm on a limited data plan so I need to track data usage (my wife, same phone, set up in almost the same way often gets months with 0MB of data used, but I do occasional web browsing). As a result my phone will regularly achieve 7 days between recharges and can reach 9 or 10 days if I'm careful.

Last weekend I turned GPS on for a 5 minute check of where I was (I usually prefer a paper map but had forgotten it). Forgot to turn it off afterwards, continued using phone as normal but it needed recharging the following day; about 36 hours since the last charge. GPS is a *big* power drain.

Presumably my phone is *not* being scanned weekly by Google?

M.

2
0

Midlife crisis, suck ingenuity? Microsoft turns 40; does the dad dance

Martin an gof
Happy

Re: what a lot of people..

The Amiga and ST blew PC hardware into the weeds

The Amiga didn't have an MMU as standard, hence memory protection between workbench applications was crap.

The Atari ST didn't have a blitter.

All of the rose tinted glasses in the world will not change the fact that there was NO decent commodity hardware available at a decent price back then.

I actually lived through this era and used these machines - all of them, IBM-PCs, Macs, Amigas and Atari STs. All of them had nice features. None of them had everything.

And because it hasn't been mentioned so far, a vote here for Acorn's Archimedes (1987 IIRC), yes it was a little later than the Amiga and the ST but it falls into a very similar category. I lived through the era too and did my fair share of typing listings out of magazines and writing my own software because I'd used most of my savings on buying hardware.

My view of the situation has long been that the reason MS "won" was nothing to do with the company itself nor its products, but was everything to do with the hardware. Not one of the other, potentially competing, systems turned out to be as "open". As soon as Compaq had reverse-engineered IBM's BIOS it became impossible to bolt the stable door and get the cat back into the bottle. The basic hardware itself was hardly more than Intel's application circuit for the 8086 and suddenly it became relatively cheap and easy to get "good enough" computer hardware from a number of suppliers.

As for an OS, only MS had something ready-to-go on that hardware. They were "in the right place at the right time". Can you imagine Commodore getting the Amiga OS working on that stuff? RISC OS? The key point is probably that they didn't want to. Their business model revolved around selling a combination of hardware and software and differentiating their products in ways that your average business user didn't understand and frankly didn't care about.

Yes, there were "killer applications" on each system; the ST's built-in MIDI, the Amiga's video circuitry (the Toaster) and, of course, Sibelius under RISC OS, but there was nothing intrinsic about those systems that meant that only they were suitable for those applications. Eventually the "PC" caught up.

And once home users began to understand what computers would be most useful for, they ended up buying Canon Starwriters or Amstrad PCW machines - in many ways "appliances", in a way more closely-related to tablets and smartphones than to modern PC-type computers.

Apple's flirtation with clones sort of missed the point, but I was well out of the Apple ecosystem by then so I can't really comment.

In a way I miss those times, but with a fleet of several dozen Raspberry Pis, a fistful of Arduinos and a copy of BBC BASIC for Windows (thanks to the marvellous Richard Russell) it hasn't completely disappeared.

M.

4
0

Lighty and flighty: Six sizzling portable projectors

Martin an gof

I'm also puzzled at who these are targetted at

As a previous poster said, travelling salesmen, onsite trainers, portable displays. There are plenty of use-cases where carrying a small (or even a large) projector of mediocre resolution about together perhaps with a portable screen is the only solution when presenting something to medium or large groups of people. You can't count on the venue either having a projector or a TV and if they do have a TV, the chances of it being as large as a projection are vanishingly small. Likewise the chance of it being mounted high enough for those at the back to see properly; this is easier with a projector.

Brightness - viewability in a daylight-flooded room - is the main weakness and these projectors are woefully lacking in that department, with the possible exception of the Canon.

I speak here as guardian of a fleet of 35+ projectors at a museum; our dimmest, smallest-image projectors are rated at 2,000 lumen as used and most of our displays work best with 4,000+. These projectors would be no good for us, but that doesn't mean they are no good for anyone.

Check out Panasonic's "large venue" DLP offerings - there are some spectacularly bright units there :-)

http://business.panasonic.co.uk/visual-system/projectors/large-venue-projectors

Most of the projectors I look after are from this range:

http://business.panasonic.co.uk/visual-system/projectors/fixed-installation

M.

1
0
Martin an gof
Boffin

That's odd...

The Canon looks like a clone of the Mitsubishi 320ST projectors we have been using for several years now. Ours are on 7½ hours a day in "low power" mode and in that mode the lamp has a rated life of 5,000 hours; 3,500 hours at high power. By the time it gets to that number of hours its output is probably nearly half what it was when new. This also goes for LED projectors, though their expected life is somewhat longer. While our four 320s are now just over 10,000 hours and still going strong, three of our four Mitsubishi 250 projectors which we thought were based on a similar chassis (both are DLP) failed shortly after 5,000 hours, which is pathetic. Failure mode was growing numbers of stuck and dead pixels.

I wouldn't really want to carry one around in a bag; they are quite bulky and the lens is a large lump of glass. They also get very hot and take ages to cool down. Very short throw though at a magnification of 0.7 or so and with a high degree of "look up". Mitsubishi pulled out of the projector market a couple of years ago.

Oh, and the web interface to the Crestron software is a nightmare. I don't know how it integrates with a centralised Crestron system, but as a stand-alone thing it's not worth the ROM space it takes up. All our projectors are networked and fortunately the Mitsubishi 320 also talks PJLink - presumably this Canon does too. I have a little utility running on a scheduled task that uses PJLink to send "on" and "off" commands, and another that queries lamp hours so we can pre-order lamps. The only downside is that both the 320 and the 250 occasionally "forget" the network and can't be reached by any means. Sometimes it's solvable by re-applying the network settings from the onscreen menu, other times it needs a hard reboot.

M.

2
0
Martin an gof
Meh

Re: resolution

I don't think resolution is an issue for this sort of projector. These are (with one exception) mainly designed for portable use by the sort of travelling rep who used to carry a flip-book of pictures around with him. For those purposes 1200 x 800 is absolutely fine, though even 1,000 lumen seems rather on the dim side.

Mind you, people still make 4:3 Powerpoint presentations even when they are told that the projector is 16:9. 1200x800 is 16:10ish, which is an odd aspect ratio that you would have to set up manually in Powerpoint. Showing a 4:3 presentation on a 16:10 projector will result in black bars to either side and a lot of wasted screen.

M.

5
3

BBC: We'll give FREE subpar-Raspberry-Pis to a million Brit schoolkids

Martin an gof
Meh

Re: too late

Mindstorms *could* be great, were it not for this:

http://shop.legoeducation.com/gb/product/intelligent-nxt-brick-9841-103/

The basic brick is £130 ex VAT. You can buy five Pis for that money and as for the Micro Bit, if they were ever available at retail I'd bet you could buy ten for the same price.

I keep making this argument regarding iPads - one iPad is a whole class worth of reading scheme, a whole term worth of exercise books etc. etc. Where do they get the money?

M.

1
0

Free WiFi coming to UK trains ... in two years

Martin an gof
Boffin

London?

all of the train companies mentioned only operate short distance commuter lines into London

Arriva Trains Wales?

Route map

Presumably this can be mandated as part of the rolling-stock upgrade that will be required when (if) the lines are electrified. Anything's better than the cattle trucks ATW operate on most of the network at the moment.

Hwyl!

M.

2
0

Watt the CHIP!? ARM pops out THE most powerful 64-bit Cortex for mobes'n'slabs

Martin an gof

Re: The difference

I have Inkscape installed on both my OpenSuse boxes and a Windows 7 box and I'm not hugely impressed. I have to say I prefer the way it works to that of LibreOffice Draw, but I have found it to be somewhat unstable and not a little sluggish in use. Xara (I started with Extreme 6 and now use Designer Pro X10) "just works" most of the time, though only under Windows of course. I still can't get used to the traditional "windows within a window" approach of non Risc-OS applications though. Terribly wasteful of screen real-estate, particularly as I have (at work) three variously-sized screens, and it reminds me of Windows 3.1's "Program Manager".

M.

0
0
Martin an gof

Re: The difference

I still haven't found a decent replacement for Impression Publisher on Linux.

Or !Draw for that matter.

Of course, were I running Windows I would be looking at Ovation which also started life on RiscOS. As for Draw, apart from the price, Xara Designer Pro X is absolutely stunning and I use it a lot at work. Version "X" has gained a lot of WP/DTP-like features. Xara began life as Artworks on RiscOS from Computer Concepts - the people that wrote Impression - and the company (after a flirtation with Corel and a buy-out from Magix) is still working from Gaddesden Place.

http://www.xara.com/uk/designer-pro/

And the thing still reads Draw files, though not always perfectly :-/

Unfortunately the native Linux version of Xara is no more (AFAICT). I am toying with the idea of trying to run it under WINE, an experiment I might attempt at work, but I'm not going to shell out for it at home unless I can prove it works near perfectly.

M.

1
0
Martin an gof

Re: The difference

ARM is the British tech success version of Apple

Hardly when you consider both the collaboration based business practices and the money earned.

But would ARM even exist without Apple? ISTR that ARM came from a collaboration between Acorn, Apple and VLSI with Apple putting a lot of the money in and Acorn essentially providing the IP. Back in those days (post the BBC deal) Acorn were hardly cash-rich as there weren't enough people like me stumping up for the Archimedes and the RiscPC. Without Apple's injection of the folding stuff we might today be remembering the ARM chip in the same nostalgic "what-might-have-been" way that we remember the Transputer, and our smartphones would either still be brick-sized to accommodate the battery needed for an x86 chip that had no competition, or be Z80-based.

My RPC is still in daily use (it's 21 this year), mostly as a mail server and emailing machine (there is quite a lot to be said for a mail client that doesn't "do" rich text and HTML) but also because I still haven't found a decent replacement for Impression Publisher on Linux.

Hwyl!

M.

8
0

'Tech' City hasn't got proper broadband and it's like BT doesn't CARE

Martin an gof
Boffin

Re: Business class...

2.5 minute video taking 9 hours? Even a 2 Mbps line would cope with that.

Uplink speeds on typical domestic ADSL2+ range from 500kbps to 1500kbps - note that uplink speeds are slower than downlink speeds, and this is a "film production company" so it'll presumably be high quality video intended for a client.

It'd have to be a client that really cared about quality and couldn't wait for the post to arrive next day though :-)

500kbps for 9 hours = 15.8Mbits total

15.8Mbits / 150 seconds = 105Mbps average video bitrate, which is a bit high, even for Apple ProRes (note, a standard "HD" camera will record at no more than 24Mbps), though I did once receive a video from a production company; 14 seconds totalling about 1Gbyte, or 660Mbps!

Ho hum.

M.

3
0

German 700MHz auction signals start of Euro spectrum flogoffs

Martin an gof
Unhappy

Re: Now I have to explain to my bosses...

Why did you buy 700Mhz mics 2 years ago?

Ok, so it was a couple more than 2 years ago. Take it from me, the first inklings of the 700MHz sell-off came just after we'd taken delivery and even then it was "unlikely due to co-ordination issues across Europe". And where we are, 700MHz was the easiest place to find 24MHz free.

I'm fully aware that Sennheiser should be able to re-tune our new microphones, but they couldn't retune our old ones because they "ran out of parts". It would have cost in the region of £400 per channel (tx/rx) IIRC which was a substantial proportion of the cost of new. Fortunately the old ones were able to use ch70 without modification so we didn't have to chuck them, though it does limit their use occasionally. Our old Trantecs were re-tuned by a third party, but probably can't be retuned again. That third party couldn't also retune the Sennheisers because of specific parts only available from Sennheiser while the Trantecs had bog standard components.

Or something.

M.

0
0
Martin an gof
Unhappy

Now I have to explain to my bosses...

...why the spanking new Sennheiser radio microphones that we bought two years ago on a "co-ordinated" frequency in the 700MHz range will have to be retuned or replaced within the next few years, and why our older microphones which were retuned from 800MHz down to 700MHz probably can't be retuned further.

Oh, and I'm going to have fun finding enough space in the remaining UHF spectrum for 20-odd sets alongside Freeview multiplexes, local TV and "white space" devices. At the moment we have 3x 8MHz "channels" plus a few in the licence-free band.

Hurumph.

M.

4
0

Enough is ENOUGH: It's time to flush Flash back to where it came from – Hell

Martin an gof

Re: If this little "feature" is still open to abuse?

it looks as though access to the online tax pages isn't possible unless scripts are enabled from Google Analytics

There were a few things I had to enable (noscript / ghostery blocked) but Google Analytics wasn't one of them. Don't think I've ever had to enable that to make something work...

M.

0
0

The weirdly-synched life of the Google Nest household

Martin an gof

Re: The basket is likely more fragile than all the eggs...

I don't know what the design lifetime of a Google Thing might be

Certainly not 25 years, particularly if you are talking backend support rather than just physical robustness... even the BBC has noticed. Interesting round on Only Connect last night where the sequence went:

Health (2008 - 2011)

Answers (2002 - 2006)

Reader (2005 - 2013)

Wave (2009 - 2010)

What's the connection? Just add "Google". Victoria Coren-Mitchel's comment afterwards was her usual standard, too; "that's good, now we know all our private medical information is safe and secure!"

M.

3
0

Chromecast video on UK, Euro TVs hertz so badly it makes us judder – but Google 'won't fix'

Martin an gof
Boffin

Re: "it is very hard to accurately identify the incoming frame rate"

I think Google are complaining about the incoming video stream. As others have pointed out, this doesn't seem to be a problem for other players, and I suspect that it isn't actually a problem for the Chromecast because after all if it chose 60fps for everything then it wouldn't be adding frames to pad a 50fps source to 60fps, it would be playing a 50fps at 60fps and therefore at a noticeably faster speed!

I'm not hugely familiar with HDMI but isn't there some data coming back from the display listing resolutions and frame rates available?

Yes, there is. This also applies to DVI. I have had cause to examine it quite closely in my work with using Raspberry Pis as video players (oh, there's a £30 device that can sort itself out with regard to frame rates).

http://elinux.org/RPiconfig#Video

(Particularly the bit underneath the long list where it shows how to get the Pi to read the data out of the connected device)

Essentially it is possible to query a device connected via HDMI or DVI and it will reply with a list of "CEA" and/or "DMT" modes which it supports. It will also flag up which of those is its native mode. CEA modes are only usually found on devices designed as televisions as they are oriented towards common video standards, while DMT modes are found on both TVs (usually) and computer monitors.

I believe a similar facility exists for devices connected by VGA cable (cf the fact that your OS will give you a list of resolutions supported by your VGA-connected monitor or projector), but as the Pi doesn't output VGA I can't be specific.

Of course the Pi is even more flexible than that:

CVT Support

M.

13
0

The cloud that goes puff: Seagate Central home NAS woes

Martin an gof
Happy

Re: Arm and a leg?

I guess you must shoot a lot more video than I do

Put it this way, we came back from a week in North Wales last May with some 31GB of photos and videos between us. Among other things, middle son had been competing at the Urdd Eisteddfod and so by the time I'd edited the film of that together with some - how shall I put this - more "professional" video of the same event, the total amount of data stored for that week stood at around 47GB. Some of this is duplicate files which could now be lost I'm sure, and if I were being *really* ruthless maybe I could cull another couple of hundred MB of out-of-focus photographs.

But then some child would murder me; "I really liked that photo of the chicken that was so out of focus it looked like an orange football"...

And that's it. The 1TB currently in use on the NAS is 90% self-generated photos and videos.

Fact of life these days I think. Certainly takes up less space in a cupboard than the boxes and boxes of 35mm negatives, prints, transparencies, Hi8 and DV video tapes, rolls of 8mm film and crates of home-recorded cassettes that I have generated over the last 40 years or so, and despite the problems it is eminently more back-up-able. Scans and digitised copies of old media makes up much of the remaining 10%.

M.

1
0
Martin an gof
Pint

Re: Having gone through this myself

We have a TS412 at work with 4 drives in RAID6. It has always been on an industrial-strength UPS (APC 3KVA jobbie in the top of the rack which does boost and buck as well as pure sinewave UPS duties for the NAS, a couple of switches, two PCs and a server) and yet a month or so ago I tried to log into the management interface (spit) to find the unit "frozen".

Clean reboot being impossible I had to force the thing to power down and when I went to the room to do that I noticed two of the drives were flashing red.

After a reboot the array was "degraded" and although the two offline drives checked out absolutely fine in SMART tests, *nothing* would persuade the unit to add them back into the array. I tried the help forums ("have you tried hot swapping the drives?") and the manual was particularly useless "once you've sorted out the dodgy disc the array will rebuild". Like heck it does.

In the end I did a "full surface scan" on both discs (simultaneously) and as soon as the first one had finished (about four hours later - 1TB drives) the rebuild started. The second disc also passed the scan with no errors, but wasn't added back to the array until the first rebuild had finished, whereupon a second rebuild started. In all from pressing "scan" to getting a fully functional array back took somewhere around 28 hours (can't remember offhand).

Until your post I thought I was unique - I haven't managed to find anything so exactly similar on the Qnap forums!

M.

(Beer - because I sympathise)

1
0
Martin an gof
Alert

Re: Arm and a leg?

I reckon a 4TB upload would take about 3 weeks at 20Mbps

Sounds about right, but how many people have a reliable, 24-hour 20Mbps uplink speed?

In my own case, I have about 1TB of important personal data to store. Most cloud services designed for home users top out at 1TB and given that we're generating perhaps 300GB or more a year at the moment (four children, each with a camera) you're starting to look at heavy duty commercial services if you really want to back *that* up to "the cloud".

Even Amazon Glacier works out expensive (in domestic terms) when you look at storing 1TB or more. It's, what, $0.01 per gig? Doesn't it also have data rate limits? I seem to remember that a colleague looked into it for some of the not-quite-vital-but-still-don't-want-to-lose data at work (with an assumption of 8TB) and realised that if we *did* lose the online NAS *and* the backup NAS and then had to restore from Glacier, the download charges would be extortionate. In this case, speed wasn't even an issue.

My uplink speed (semi-rural ADSL, single provider, no cable) is 448kbps. Cloud backup is simply *not viable*, either from a cost point-of-view or a practicality (speed) PoV.

Solution in progress: duplicate my FreeNAS box, synch the two at home, transfer box offsite and do incrementals. Bonus, offsite is my mum's and second box can then do Time Machine for her Mac, and backup to us.

That said, 1TB 2.5" WD Red drives aren't exactly cheap, and I intend to put 6 in each box...

M.

6
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