The point is that Amazon, etc. were organising their tax affairs legally and HMRC & the courts (who enforce law) had nothing had nothing against them.
The government make law and decided (rightly or wrongly, depending on your viewpoint) that Amazon etc. were not paying enough tax and changed the legislation to enable more tax to be extracted legally. The mechanism of a tax on exported profits seems odd (similar to non-dom "charges"?), but the only other way would be a full revamp of global taxation and the cooperation of every tax haven.
I'm sure Amazon will just put their prices up to cover the taxes, but I would still use them because they provide a good service.
Starbucks have enough real competition that they can't do that. But as I don't like the taste of their coffee, fewer Starbucks branches make no noticeable difference to me. Though you could say that they're providing employment and paying rent & business rates, so there is some loss to the economy.