$277-Billion is a drop in the bucket
Almost every city, and decent sized town, has severe pollution problems. And by severe includes rivers catching fire. Yet the country has an aggressive recycling industry that starts with old ladies (no pension plan in China) going house-to-house ad apartment-to-apartment buying for cash discarded cardboard, newspapers, pop bottles, plastic wrap and even foam cups and food containers. Never realised foamed food containers could be recycled.
These collectors, in turn, turn the collected items in to district recycling companies who reimburse them based upon weight.
THEN the pollution begins! Some types of plastic are heated up whilst others, such as pop bottles are washed (in a river or lake) then they are shredded and dried in the sun.
Electrical cables are particularly polluting. They set huge piles of cable on fire to burn off the insulation, then the copper is recovered.
In VietNam the government is proactive. A Taiwanese owned food additive producer was polluting a river system and the discharge pipe was discovered by amateur ecologists. The only thing that got the company's attention was when the general population refused to buy their products. Some supermarket chains also stopped selling their products.
Another anti-pollution step has been the government reducing the supply of charcoal brickettes - used by street vendors and some residential users - as the fumes from smouldering charcoal is as bad as the old night watchmen's oil barrels filled with garbage to keep warm.
Countries should be forced to dispose, or process, their own disposable products - no more ship stripping on the beaches of Asia or e-waste off Africa < http://www.greenfudge.org/2010/09/13/uk-govt-and-european-e-waste-illegally-dumped-in-africa/ >.
TaiWan has decreed all vehicles must be fitted with EFI (Electronic Fuel Injection). Since TaiWan is the base for may small-engined vehicles manufacturers, including motorcycles and scooters, the 'spill over' effect has migrated to all regional consuming countries with the result air is cleaner and fuel consumption lowered. The vehicles are also speedier!