* Posts by Richard 12

1721 posts • joined 16 Jun 2009

Virgin's SpaceShipTwo crashes in Mojave Desert during test flight

Richard 12
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Boffin

Re: Space Ship?

It was intended to go to space.

Just not stay there.

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Richard 12
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Facepalm

Re: Black Box

'Cos it's a test flight.

Test flights are filled to the gunnels with data recorders measuring and recording (and often transmitting in real-time) anything and everything that can be reasonably measured. They're more fragile (and a heck of a lot more expensive) than black boxes, but the storage media should survive.

They aren't going to speculate on the causes until they've recovered as much of it as possible and had time to analyse what happened.

Equally, there won't be any more test flights until they've done that and figured out how to reduce the probability of it happening again.

A "black box" records absolutely nothing in comparison.

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Smart meters in UK homes will only save folks a lousy £26 a year

Richard 12
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To allow updates.

The firmware will contain bugs, and even if it didn't, the encryption scheme will need new keys and/or a new algorithm from time to time as they get lost, stolen or broken.

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UK smart meters arrive in 2020. Hackers have ALREADY found a flaw

Richard 12
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Re: Change the government's mind?

They did.

"Smart Meters" are an EU dictat.

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Samsung turns off lights on LEDs worldwide – except in South Korea

Richard 12
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Ledswinger's right.

LED is being fitted in places like school gyms and streetlamps to reduce the cost of the access needed to replace the lamps, and improve the quality of the light.

A school sports hall would previously have used high-bay halogens (3000 hours) or CDMs (5-10,000 hours).

The lamps cost very little, and the CDMs will have been more efficacious, but the access equipment physically needed to go up and change the lamps is very expensive!

If the LED luminaire saves them 5 to 7 lamp changes, that's a lot of very expensive "man up a picker" hours - and at least 10 years.

However, the people who made that LED luminaire are only ever going to sell one set of them to that school!

Heck, the lamps might even outlast the building itself...

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Richard 12
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Boffin

Re: much better light quality?

No, he's absolutely right that LEDs have too long a wavelength to excite a decent phosphor mix.

As somebody working the the field of LED illumination (at the middle to absolute top end), I see a lot of the details that most people never would.

Near-UV LEDs do exist, but they are fairly low efficacy and have short lifetimes. Far-UV is basically unknown outside the lab - the efficacy and lifetime are just too poor to be worth it (yet).

Almost every "White" LED you can buy is a Blue LED painted with a thin layer of yellow phosphor. The approx. colour temperature (CCT) is mostly decided by the thickness/density of the phosphor layer - thicker layers let less of the blue through - thus higher colour temps are more efficacious, but look worse.

This obviously makes it really hard to make the same White LED twice!

There have been some interesting experiments with LED lamps - Philips did a really nice "remote phosphor" lamp (it had external clip-on phosphor-impregnated panels), there was an excellent Red+White that red-shifted while dimming, and earlier in the year narrowband RGB mixes were being tried out, which are much more repeatable than "White" LED as you don't have to control the thickness of the phosphor layer.

Unfortunately I fear that innovation at the domestic end of the market may be over now that both Samsung and Philips have exited the market.

Philips were (and still are) absolutely terrible at the high-brightness end (the PL4 is just embarrassingly bad), but they made some really good domestic lamps.

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This Changes Everything? OH Naomi Klein, NO

Richard 12
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Re: The Register should write about what it knows, this article is a FAIL.

The electric car has been killed by Chemistry, nothing else.

No industry has had any notable dampening effect whatsoever.

People simply want to travel >50 miles many times a year.

They want to be able to do this without pre-booking, with minimum of delays and at a low price.

Therefore, they want a private car capable of doing this.

They also need a vehicle capable of doing their daily commute.

Electric cars simply cannot do both due to Chemistry, they can only do the commute and not the long distance.

A daily commute is better served by mass-transit like the Tube or a Metro system - both for minimising environmental damage and the overall economic cost.

It would be even better if the commute could be avoided by working from home.

So if anything, the Internet and the London Tube killed the electric car.

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Richard 12
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Re: This is an ideological post opposed to an ideological book.

Not really.

It's an explanatory article opposed to a stupid book.

The book is self-contradictory and cherry-picks parts of theories while ignoring the remainder of the theory.

That's like accepting that Gravity holds the Moon in orbit while also insisting that the Moon has no effect on Earthly tides.

(Feel free to steal that analogy)

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Happy 2nd birthday, Windows 8 and Surface: Anatomy of a disaster

Richard 12
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Indeed, it's Windows 7 that sold those millions, used under the "downgrade" rights of the Windows 8 licence.

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Richard 12
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Re: Charm menu ... grrr ...

That's because you don't have a touchscreen, like you're supposed to have.

On a touchscreen, after somebody carefully shows you all of the gestures, you forget them and random stuff happens when you accidentally do one of the swipes or swirls or whatever.

This eventually results in you closing Modern and never using it again.

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Kip Thorne explains how he created the black hole for Interstellar

Richard 12
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Nope, it's bent.

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Adobe spies on readers: EVERY DRM page turn leaked to base over SSL

Richard 12
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Holmes

Re: Rights restriction systems

Eventually they will realise that DRM is an expensive white elephant.

It is fundamentally impossible to prevent interception when Eve and Bob are the same entity.

So all they are doing is pissing money up the wall while simultaneously pissing off their paying customers.

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Chipmaker FTDI bricking counterfeit kit

Richard 12
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Switching drivers under Windows 7 is easy.

Switching drivers under Windows 8.1 is harder if they aren't MS-signed, but not by much.

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Richard 12
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Re: Woolly thinking

I think they are well within their rights to refuse to support 3rd party devices with their driver.

However, they have decided to also actively damage those 3rd party devices, making them unusable without special tools.

That second action is the problem.

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Richard 12
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Re: Such a dick move.

So it would also be fine if it moved the contents of your Windows folder or wiped the boot sector of your hard disk so your computer could not boot?

Those are just settings, you can put them back.

Sorry, but this is on very legally dodgy ground, and there is certainly an argument that it may fall foul of the Computer Misuse Act.

Hope they have good lawyers, they are likely to need them.

Had they simply prevented their driver from working with 3rd party devices, that would be fine. The moment they decided to actively damage those 3rd party devices, that is when they crossed the line.

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Want a more fuel efficient car? Then redesign it – here's how

Richard 12
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Re: copper v ali

Overhead power lines don't vibrate at all unless there's a particularly nasty earthquake - they swing in the wind, but that's borne by the articulated hangers.

Aluminium wire (with steel core) is used as a cost-saving measure - it's cheaper per metre and lighter so fewer towers are needed.

The towers don't vibrate, the terminations are very few and done by well-trained experts so it is a good fit.

However, car engines vibrate continually, as does everything in a car, there are a lot of terminations and the guy doing them is an enthusiast, not an expert.

I don't think you've ever seen a high current aluminium connection, or the wire sizes needed for it - aluminium wire is pretty bulky, presenting some tricky problems if you care about long-term stability and safety.

For example, an efficient car starter motor draws about 80-100 Amps. (A cheap one could draw considerably more).

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Richard 12
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Re: Fuse wire

Aside from that, copper is considerably more ductile than aluminium, and much easier to properly terminate the ends - a simple crimp will easily cold-weld onto copper, but can shatter aluminium.

High-current aluminium terminations require careful preparation work (worse than MICC for $deity's sake) as you have to strip the insulating corrosion off, then terminate properly before it corrodes again.

Thus aluminium is a very, very bad choice for anything that vibrates a lot, or anything that needs a lot of high-current connections because those connections will fail over time, leading to further heating losses, failures, and in the worst cases, fires.

Once burning, aluminium is effectively impossible to extinguish - adding water will cause a hydrogen explosion, you can only use halon-type or CO2, and once extinguished you must cool the metal very quickly or it will re-ignite.

In industrial electrics aluminium is specifically prohibited by many insurers and equipment manufacturers.

In the home, many insurers charge a high premium if you have aluminium wiring due to the increased fire risk.

There is a reason why car manufacturers still use the more expensive copper.

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Sign off my IT project or I’ll PHONE your MUM

Richard 12
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Megaphone

Re: Small company similar issue

I demand a refund!

There, is that better?

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Virgin Media DOUBLE-PUNCHED by BSkyB AND BT over ad fibs

Richard 12
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Mushroom

Re: up-to: the scurge of advertisement.

Still utter bollocks - I don't live at the exchange, and neither does anybody else.

They know the exact bandwidth their existing customers are getting, so should be forced to state the range of speeds one should expect to get, and not the theoretical maximum you might possibly manage to get if you happened to plug your modem directly into the DSLAM.

(After all, if you were that close you wouldn't be using a modem anyway)

BEfore I left due to them being acquired by scum, my previous ISP used to publish the 'speed' any given customer could expect to get the moment you put in your postcode, and they even offered to cancel your subscription with no charges if you didn't get it.

Why exactly won't every ISP do that?

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This isn't a sci-fi movie: It's a human-made probe snapping a comet selfie

Richard 12
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Joke

Re: I have to say...

It's not in bloody colour!

How dare they take photos in non-visible spectrum, just because it makes for better science!

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It's a TAB-tastrophe – 83 million fewer units to ship in 2014

Richard 12
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Holmes

Re: Doesn't seem too much interest from manufacturers

500 is nothing at all, so of course the manufacturers don't care. These are mass-market products, the resellers buy that many in a week if not less.

You'd need to be asking for closer to 10,000 to get them interested.

The only way they notice small numbers like 500 is if you're a high-profile event like the Olympics or perhaps Commonwealth Games, where they can justify it as a direct marketing expense.

Also, the Android and Windows tablets have pretty tight margins, so discounts are very hard to get generally. (Apple have better margins but also have less reason to give a toss about such small numbers of devices.)

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White LED lies: It's great, but Nobel physics prize-winning great?

Richard 12
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Re: @Scatter - look at the numbers, not the technology

The vast majority of domestic LED retrofits give no published figures whatsoever, and many are nameless making them impossible to check.

In testing a lot of domestic are also worse than halogen - there are even capacitor-resistor dropper LED lamps out there!

Aside from that there is the problem of optics - most are tight spotlights so even those that do provide significantly more lumens/Watt often don't actually light the room.

Oddly CRI scores seem to be rarely given - odd, as these are usually well publicised for florry tubes.

The latest approach at the higher end of the quality range is RGB - this is more efficacious and repeatable than Blue + Phosphor, however CRI is misleading for narrowband emitters (it's easy to get a really high or low score despite being mediocre) and CQS is not a ratified standard yet making it very hard to compare.

UV + Phosphor is basically never done, because UV LEDs are low efficacy and rip themselves to pieces in a few thousand hours. (Philips did a near-UV + External phosphor for a while, but it's been discontinued for ages. Shame as it was quite a nice lamp)

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Richard 12
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Boffin

Re: @Scatter - look at the numbers, not the technology

Seeing as you insist - two 230V products you can buy now:

Coemar LEDko @ 26deg: under 9 lumens/Watt. (Source: LSI, ignoring power factor losses.)

ETC Source Four (750W Halogen) @ 26deg: 13 lumens/Watt. (The 375W lamp is about 11 lumens/Watt.)

- In reality the LEDko is worse due to power factor which again acts in the halogen's favour.

There are several worse LED fixtures, this is simply the first one I found with published figures that you can check. I've seen LED fixtures that barely reach 5 lumens/watt due to poor optics, diode overheating and (especially) power supply efficiency.

They're generally easy to spot - if it doesn't give both input power and field/beam lumens, it's probably terrible. (Converting lux to to lumens will overestimate as datasheets give peak lux, not average)

Quite a few domestic ones are really terrible, primarily due to cutting too many corners in the LED driver/power supply design. Aside from that, the optics need to match the purpose - I've seen a lot where the optics are so narrow that you can't even use it as a reading light, yet it's sold as room lighting.

That's before you even start considering the quality of the light - the CRI and CQS of most domestic LED are painfully low, even worse than cheap florry.

They can be good, but most aren't and some are truly terrible.

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Richard 12
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WTF?

@Scatter - look at the numbers, not the technology

We'll just have to wait and see what the Commission does regarding a halogen lighting phase out. My money is on them going for it (it's a no-brainer now with halogen replacements now being at the right quality and price point) so my money's on the Gone Green trend for lighting.

And if they do that then they are the most stupid idiots in the history of bloody fools, and the entire lighting industry will fight them to the death.

Just because something is LED does not mean it's efficacious. Lots of them are utter shite, consuming more electricity to make less light than a halogen.

The last round of proposals set a Lumens/Watt minimum and said nothing whatsoever about the technology. This is the only sane thing to do - defining a particular technology is the act of a moron.

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Richard 12
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Re: We're already seeing savings

And we're also seeing plenty of snake oil - "It's LED therefore it's green".

There are several LED luminaires that are actually considerably less efficacious than the 'equivalent' tungsten-halogen luminaire - in some cases less than a basic tungsten!

One LED fixture I've recently seen is only 9-10 lm/W - while the 'similar' tungsten-halogen is 13 lm/W

Won't name names but they're easy to spot - if the fixture spec only says how many watts of LEDs it has and doesn't give both the input power and beam lumens, you can be pretty sure it's better at heating than lighting.

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Dairy Queen cuts the waffle, says bank cards creamed in 395 eateries

Richard 12
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Pint

Re: List not complete

I do this pretty often. Ok, I don't tend to buy ice cream very often but the same scale of transaction.

When travelling to forn parts it's usually cheaper to buy everything on plastic rather than cash as my card gets a better rate than over-the-counter foreign exchange, and I don't end up with a pile of small change that I can't use.

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Revealed: Malware that forces weak ATMs to spit out 'ALL THE CASH'

Richard 12
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Re: Maybe the entire ATM universe needs a refit!

They'd just swap the SD card.

The OS and hardware isn't the problem, it's the physical access.

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Woman says narco-cops used her PICS to snare drug lords on Facebook

Richard 12
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Re: Perspective people.

That's all completely irrelevant.

The allegation is that they used her private images for an illegal and unauthorised purpose, namely one that had no bearing on the case she was arrested for.

Futhermore, this put her in danger of reprisals.

Under US copyright law alone the unauthorised use carries millions in civil penalties, before considering anything else.

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Renault Twingo: Small, sporty(ish), safe ... and it's a BACK-ENDER

Richard 12
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WTF?

Nobody will buy the smaller engine

Less efficacious, less power, less torque, and a low top speed that will probably be scary on a UK motorway and outright terrifying on a German Autobahn as there can't be much acceleration left by the time you're doing 65-70mph.

The only group where it might make sense are young drivers, and you don't buy a brand-new car for a teenager unless you've more money than sense, in which case you'd buy the bigger one anyway and to hell with the higher premiums.

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Cut-off North Sea island: Oh crap, ferry's been and gone. Need milk. SUMMON THE DRONE

Richard 12
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Black Helicopters

460 km is a bit further than 12km

Given that you probably need one of these to get there in a manned whirlybird, assuming you want to go there and all the way back.

(The hover at Rockall will burn a fair bit of fuel)

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Buying memory in an iPhone 6: Like wiping your bottom with dollar bills

Richard 12
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WTF?

Re: "A little eBay shopping and you can find 128GB Micro SD cards for under a tenner"

Go on then downvoters and Pierre - tell us what interface Apple have used!

If you are so utterly certain of your superior knowledge, enlighten us!

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Richard 12
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Re: "A little eBay shopping and you can find 128GB Micro SD cards for under a tenner"

CF is IDE (PATA). It's actually pretty slow by modern standards!

There are other parallel-interface flash chips, but they are rarely used these days.

See iFixit for details - the chip name even starts "SD"!

Looks like a SanDisk iNAND family chip, which has an eSD interface. I leave it to the reader to figure out what the "e" stands for!

Almost every Arm device with decent amounts of Flash uses an SD interface. The silicon is cheap, fast, reliable and well documented.

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Richard 12
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Re: "A little eBay shopping and you can find 128GB Micro SD cards for under a tenner"

Yes, it is.

Mostly because it's the same chip with the same interface.

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SCREW YOU, Russia! NASA lobs $6.8bn at Boeing AND SpaceX to run space station taxis

Richard 12
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Re: SpaceX's cheaper Dragon capsule has room for seven

The computer drives it.

I'm assured that it has the greatest enthusiasm and confidence in the mission, and wants to help.

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'Windows 9' LEAK: Microsoft's playing catchup with Linux

Richard 12
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Re: Meeeh

H4rm0ny, I really can't tell whether that third paragraph is a joke or not, because nobody with half a brain could possibly hold that view.

Swipe down - will that scroll? Will it close and lose my work? Minimise and keep my work? How do I tell what will happen before it happens?

An icon that I can click on or poke has a thingy called a tooltip. Once I've read that tooltip, I know what it will do. (Or rather, I should).

Gestures cannot be labelled, and as they depend on context they are completely undiscoverable.

Watch this video. Labels matter.

The "half dozen" programs I commonly use pop up in the first level of the Windows 7 Start menu.

The hundred or so programs that I don't use very often but still need to have show in a hierarchical menu structure that lets me put "like with like".

I can already hit "windows" then type to search. Guess what - it simply doesn't work. It's a fundamentally bad concept because it does not match with how people think.

For a concrete example - I use IBM ClearCase. The application for it used to be called "Remote Client", and it's now called "ClearTeam Explorer". If I search for "IBM", "team" or "clearcase" it's not found.

With the old name, searching for "remote client" or "explorer" it's found, along with half a dozen other programs with almost identical names - with the old name I had several where the only difference was the icon.

How do you search for something when you do not know what it's called?

On Windows 7 I can follow the menu Programs > IBM Rational ClearCase > and bingo!

At home I can search for a fork - kitchen > cutlery drawer > bingo!

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Brit telcos warn Scots that voting Yes could lead to HEFTY bills

Richard 12
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Facepalm

@Pax681 Re: This would be the same BT...

I've read that White Paper, and I don't think you have. It's 650 (670 inc. contents) pages long for a start.

It is full of vague promises of sunshine and happiness, most of which cannot possibly be met and will therefore be slowly stripped down and discarded one by one as the dust settles after the referendum.

Many of the promises come with astronomical costs, and there is a repeated explicit assumption that "England, Wales and NI will pay for this". That won't happen.

Much of it is implausible, some is impossible and the rest is very expensive. It's clear that very little attempt has been made to figure out how much it would cost - or be paid for.

I could write a white paper promising that I'll make it rain donuts on demand if I win. You'd laugh at me, and rightly so!

Here's what it says about telecommunications:

In telecommunications policy, our approach will give greater priority to improving geographic coverage, particularly in remote rural areas
This is indeed a laudable goal.

However, it will be very expensive. Either BT (or ST?) will have to be given a massive chunk of public money, both up-front and as a running subsidy or BT/ST will have to significantly increase prices. Probably both, because they won't have any reason to offset the high cost & low revenue of Scottish highlands against the low costs & high revenue of places like Manchester and London.

There is no mention whatsoever of how this could be paid for - the only budget mentioned is one that will vanish on independence because most of it's coming from the Westminster central government (via the UK's Department of Fun and the block grant), and the rest from the ERDF, which you won't be eligible for until Spain lets you join the EU. On top of that, 30% of the figure they state is 'probable' investment from a private company that would have to rethink its infrastructure investments - remember that they expect to make a profit!

On this and many other points (Network Rail, National Grid and others) the SNP simply assume that the rest of the UK will continue to subsidise the additional demands on them that comes with a rugged land with low population density.

As an example, section 440 "What will the transmission charging regime be in an independent Scotland?"

This section quite literally says "the rest of the UK will pay for Scotland's new infrastructure".

If you want to go it alone, that's fine. We'll respect your decision.

But the other side of independence is that you'll have to pay for your dreams yourselves.

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Scottish independence: Will it really TEAR the HEART from IT firms?

Richard 12
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Multi-currency working costs more and has higher risks

It's as simple as this:

  • Buy your widgets in USD
  • Sell your widgets in GBP
Your profit margin is clearly dependent on the exchange rate between GBP and USD - if USD goes down, your profit goes up and vice-versa.

So how do you set your prices?

Costs+overheads+margin against 'what the market will bear' is not enough, you also have to look at the probabilities of each currency changing in either direction and how far, and if you can hedge against these risks in some way.

All that costs extra.

So he's absolutely right - they could work in multiple currencies, but it increases their costs and so have chosen not to do so.

Many online retailers choose to work in a single currency and pass that risk onto their buyers - for example, AliExpress works entirely in USD regardless of your local currency.

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Richard 12
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Only to begin with

The UK won't take British Citizenship away from Scots who already have it.

The position of those who currently have "work visas" in the UK is unknown - would Scotland honour them? If an independent Scotland granted this to a foreigner, would the Rest-of-UK honour it?

However, people born after separation would only hold one passport or the other - so a lot of children would only be Scottish and would not be British.

And finally, if Scottish and R-UK immigration policies drifted "too far" apart, then border controls would have to be put in place - for example, this would be required if either the R-UK or Scotland decided to join Schengen but the other didn't.

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Be your own Big Brother: Monitoring your manor, the easy way

Richard 12
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Re: weakness in this story

Is there still any argument running about the Homeplug devices causing interference to various radio bands?

There's no argument at all - they do, and everybody in the industry knows it but the regulators have chosen to ignore it.

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Jony Ive: Apple iWatch will SCREW UP Switzerland's economy

Richard 12
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My watch battery went flat last week

Really irritated actually, it only managed 5 years when the battery before was at least 8.

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Richard 12
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Re: It's FAR too early to judge

2. And the cost of Apple software because they decided "Nobody needs to do that" and made it completely impossible to achieve.

Or the cost of apple software due to backwards-compatibility issues, forcing you to upgrade your OSX before the software you need will run (because the APIs change so much that the softwrae house can't afford to support the older versions.)

Or the cost of forced Apple hardware upgrades because the version of OSX you must have to run the software you must have won't run on the hardware you have - even though there's no technical reason for it.

Frankly, the number of reasons to buy Apple for work-related software have been decreasing very rapidly over the last few years, as software goes multi-platform (Adobe, avid) or worse, gets castrated.

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Are you a HOT CELEB? Think your SEXY PICS are safe? Maybe NOT

Richard 12
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Re: So, now explain to me..

Maybe the photos in question were taken using iPhones?

Usually pretty obvious in mirror-selfies, and the meta-data always includes it anyway.

By most accounts that's the case - though I doubt the meta data is still attached to the photos, as otherwise the media would be talking about how the pics also exposed where these people live, as well as parts of their bodies that they didn't want public.

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NUDE SELFIE CLOUD PERV menace: Apple 2FA? Sweet FA, more like

Richard 12
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Re: Ah but they didn't used Password

No, they simply believed what Apple et al told them about iCloud etc.

"The cloud is the safest place for your data"

They didn't tell them that Cloud services are like storing your private stuff in a cloakroom shared by everyone in the world.

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Twitter: La la la, we haven't heard of NUDE JLaw, Upton SELFIES

Richard 12
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WTF?

Re: 5 seconds with google....

Presumably she either took the pics herself or knew the person taking them - as otherwise they'd be long-lens shots and already published in well-known magazines.

So why take the photos in the first place?

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Intel unleashed octo-core speed demon for the power-crazed crowd

Richard 12
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Re: Really? They're putting tantalum in CPUs now?

The package has always included decoupling caps.

Given that you cannot buy an Intel CPU as a bare die, it seems reasonable to mention them.

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Euro banks will rip out EVERYTHING and buy proper backend systems ... LOL, fooled ya

Richard 12
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You mean "Normal"

Everybody thinks they are above average.

You're unlikely to find many drivers who say they're poor at it, and you will never find a company who says they are bad at any aspect of their core business.

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Now that's FIRE WIRE: HP recalls 6 MILLION burn-risk laptop cables

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42 that they know about

And that have already failed spectacularly.

Presumably they have now inspected the shipping wire and found it's got a flaw - most likely there's practically no copper in it, like a lot of the cheap E-Bay IEC cables you see in Blighty.

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Richard 12
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Re: Flat, 3 core, single insulated, vs round, 3 core, double insulated?

Yep, single-insulated flat cables are industry standard in the USA.

They use wimpy 110VAC instead of manly 240VAC so they think nothing can happen.

Except that the risk of fire roughly quadruples of course - P=I×I×R

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Bright lights, affordable motor: Ford puts LED headlights onto Mondeo

Richard 12
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Re: headaches and snow

Only if they use low-frequency PWM dimming. Like everyone else seems to.

Who am I kidding. We're almost the only company dimming LEDs fast enough for race-line cameras, so how likely are Ford to go at the tens of kHz needed?

Will make the slo-mo replays interesting though!

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Richard 12
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Re: "last for the lifetime of the vehicle"

Anybody saying 100,000 hours for an LED luminaire is using an interesting definition of lifetime - usually 50% at 50% brightness.

75,000 to 70% initial brightness is plausible under good conditions.

That should mean around 25 years at 8 hours a day, which seems a reasonable claim for car lifetime.

But fans? Really?

Our outdoor LED doesn't have fans and the white edition is brighter than a headlight is allowed to be.

It is also physically larger than this Ford though, which is probably the real reason - the designer insisted on tiny "piggy eyes", thus ensuring normal heatsink and heat pipes couldn't do it.

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