Re: Forget true equality
At my school, just a few years ago, the undergrad computer engineering department had about 150 students. Two of them were women, they were both exceptionally bright and academically successful and neither felt they were being discriminated against in any way by other students (though there was some typical social awkwardness, but probably nothing like that coming from the dude bro fratboys at bigger schools) and certainly not by the faculty at all. The software engineering department had one woman among 250 students and it was the same deal there. The electrical electrical engineering department (500 students) had none during the time I was there. The school's overall claimed 85/15 split was almost entirely down to the biomedical engineering department, and still I think they were cherry picking an old statistic from a particularly good year.
Racially, there were five African-American students, and about twice as many Asian-American students (all men). There were indeed a significant number of other non-caucasian students (mostly Asian and Indian), but having come from other countries, it's not quite the same thing, though it will become so if they stay in the States.
The school certainly wasn't turning down female or minority applicants, and they did go to a good deal of trouble to get them to apply. They just didn't. Since it was a smaller school, it's probably an extreme example. The only reason I can imagine why there weren't more female applicants is because the idea of being such a small minority gave them second thoughts (perhaps why the women in particular tended to be unusually competent).
The problem is way, way deeper than undergraduate schools, and probably even high schools. I have no idea what it is, and maybe more visible role models would help some, but my money is the subtle (and sometimes not so subtle) lingering stench of America's puritanical past.