Re: The Butterfly effect.
How confident is NASA that their historical data is as accurate as their current data and that either set of data is not misread or miscalibrated in some way. The article you cite does not describe HOW they come to their findings (the specific sources of all their data). Did they take oceanic CO2 concentrations into consideration or the idea that melting ice could itself release CO2?
As for the Tacoma-Narrows bridge collapse, we know more now than we knew then. The phenomenon isn't as complicated as you make it out to be. We know describe the phenomenon as "flutter". After an airliner broke up mid-flight due to flutter, we learned more about natural metal flexibility when exposed to steady wind and how this flex can somehow oscillate in a resonant frequency resulting in accelerated metal fatigue. We now design things so as to increase bracing at key points to as to prevent flutter (modern airliners and the replacement Tacoma-Narrows Bridge are both built sturdier to prevent another incident of flutter).