1998 posts • joined Wednesday 10th June 2009 11:28 GMT
Slightly better than Helium. H2 molecular weight = 2 (plus a smidgeon for the Deuterium). He molecular / atomic weight 4 (less a smidgeon for the Helium-3). Air average molecular weight about 29. So 2/29 extra lift.
I still think that a smallish rubber or polymer balloon filled with hydrogen in an open outdoors location is safe. Extreme incompetence or a lightning strike would result in a fire burning upwards, ie away from the people. Just put a small exclusion zone around the balloon during the initial fill (until it's bouyant enough to be tethered a fair number of feet above any human heads). Or get it to no-load bouyancy with Helium, float it upwards, switch the fill to Hydrogen.
Final assembly in the UK?
I wonder whether they have ever considered the option of doing final assembly in the UK (or EU). Ship components rather than complete laptops, and then configure CPU / hard disk size / RAM / Case colour in the UK as orders are received.
It works for cars.
No, not a Mac exile
She's never used a Mac. The "killer app" for her work needs Windows. I asked her what she thought about the other browsers. IE: "gives you viruses". Firefox: "slow". (based on 3.5 and her slow old laptop). Opera: "What?". Chrome: "too new" "don't want Google spying on me".
And she likes that accursed ribbon interface in Office 2007. Sigh.
IQ does mean something
IQ is a measure of how good one is at doing IQ tests.
As for how strong or otherwise is the correlation between someone's test result and what you perceive as their level of intelligence, that's a hard thing to study. However, I think it's unlikely that many of the folks who can't score more than 85 in an IQ test are going to strike you as any kind of super-smart dude when you meet them. In other words, there's a fairly good corellation with something that you'd like to measure, but can't.
As for self-selection bias, it's hard to see how there is any in this study, which gives the browser chioce by percentage, for people testing with similar IQs. For there to be a bias, you have to think of a reason why an IE user with an IQ of (say) 115 is less likely to take the test than a Firefox with that same IQ, whereas an IE user with an IQ of 85 is more likely to take the test than a Firefox user with an IQ of 85. That a dim lightbulb may be more likely to select himself than a bright one doesn't affect the results.
The missing detail is the number of people in the various buckets - it it's too small then the error bars (not shown) will be large and the evidence concerning those at the extremes of the
IQ distribution may not be enough to exclude the null hypothesis. The trends are pretty persuasive, though. Modulo self-selection bias, you can estimate the number of people in each bucket from the shape of the IQ distribution curve (more or less a normal distribution) because they give the total number of test results analyzed.
one from me further down ...
... pointing out that if you filtered out people responding from work computers and internet cafes, then you might lose a disproportionate part of the high-IQ IE users. Just as you say, they don't choose to use it, they are given no choice in those environments.
Ever been bored?
Ever wanted to fill a few minutes? Ever done a (non-cryptic) crossword puzzle? Ever played Angry Birds?
Anecdotal, but ...
Over the week-end I was helping an artrs graduate set up a new laptop (a very bright cookie but completely IT-clueless, or so I thought). First thing she did after I'd done the tech stuff was to download and install Safari.
It occurs to me that a smart retailer could make use of this. If the potential customer is running IE, push the crap products that you need to get rid of.
@matthew 3 - Correlation not count.
No need to take account of it. If Opera, Firefox etc. users are blocking ads, then they won't see the survey and won't feature in it. If the survey were intended to estimate the popularity of the various browsers, this would result in IE appearing to be more popular than it really is. Likewise, if less intelligent users are more likely to voluntarily take an IQ test, then the average IQ of the survey respondents will be less than the average IQ of the population at large (theoretically 100).
But that's not what the survey was about. For each respondent, they got an IQ score and a browser. The lower the IQ, the more likely that the browser was IE. This correlation isn't being accidentally selected, unless you can think of a good reason why high-IQ IE users were *proportionally* less likely to take the survey than the same-IQ Firefox and Opera users.
BTW the survey should have filtered out people using an employer's computer or an internet cafe, because high-IQ users of such facilities don't necessarily get to choose their browser. In other words, the correlation might be even stronger than these results suggest!
I've been suggesting this for a long time ...
... in a more conventional way. Don't use conventional air-conditioning to cool the server farm by pumping heat to the outside of the building. Use a heat pump that pumps heat into the building's central heating system. In winter this will reduce or eliminate the need for conventional heating from a boiler. This way, only in summer would you be dumping heat to the outside of the building.
For big server farms in small buildings, the central heating system should be extended into an area heating system, i.e. to adjacent premises.
Future server farms should go in cold locations, like Alaska or Finland, whenever speed-of-light data lag isn't a big issue.
More for less, rather than less for more.
Apple fanbois buy Apple because Apple wants them to. I understand brainwashing.
For the rest of us, I think the problem is that every tablet manufacturer is trying to sell us less for more. The netbook or notebook format has a keyboard, yet like for like costs less. If that's the real economic cost of a touch-screen showing up, then most of us simply don't need or want to pay extra for touch-screen. But since we can buy non-smart phones with touch-screens so cheaply, I doubt that it is.
Asus and Acer seem to be the only companies addressing this, with tablets with detachable keyboards. But they still aren't cheap and aren't necessarily the best way to do it. Who sells a tablet with a passive stand, wireless keyboard and mouse and (ideally) an optional clip-on keyboard so you can also configure it as a one-piece notebook? When someone sells it and it's price-competitive with a same-spec notebook plus £30 for the wireless keyboard/mouse, I'll think about buying it.
What use is the ISS? Alternative roadmap.
I have to ask this question - what use is it?
It wasn't necessarily a bad decision to build it. Curiosity is a good motivation. We wanted to see what could be done by human beings living and working long-term in an orbiting laboratory, and the experiment has another 8+ years to run.
But at present - is there anything we have discovered that we can do there, which we can't do here, or better with unmanned robotic vehicles (such as the Hubble telescope)? And if nothing new is discovered by 2020?
My guess at the future (if we don't crash our civilisation first) is that the important developments will be here on Earth, with robotics and "AI" (not true intelligence, but much more flexible programs maybe on a par with insects) and IA (intelligence amplification). Then put robots in space, and start them asteroid mining and manufacturing heavy stuff (like more robot bodies so we only have to launch chips and other lightweight high-tech up the gravity well. Eventually we get to O'Neill colonies, and the era of human expansion into space might really arrive. (Alternatively, if brains are not quantum computers, we might work out how to upload ourselves, and then we'll hit a Vingean singularity before we get going in space).
Any mariner knew
Any mariner with an open mind knew that the world was roundish. Look at a ship sailing away, and it gradually drops below the horizon, until you can see only its sails and not its hull. Columbus was willing to stake his life on not falling off the edge. He had to be pretty darned certain in his own head.
He was also pretty certain that there were inhabited lands far to the West. Man-made detritus washed up from time to time, driven by the current and the prevailing wind, both known to be from that direction. Occasionally there would have been whole canoes, possibly containing bodies.
He's paranoid? Thinks "they" are out to get him and that anonymity in a jailhouse is the best way to foil them?
Or maybe he's completely rational and "they" are a branch of organised crime, or a deranged homicidal ex? In which case I hope he knows that his photo has been published.
Read the article
No - they've proved that the information carried by a single photon cannot move faster than the speed of light. Or they claim that they have done that.
You may think it must be true by definition, but it isn't.
Here we have in a microcosm, how and why it is that the bankers have completely shafted us. Dress smartly and carry a shiny gadget, and the world will put trillions of dollars in your hands to throw away in any way you think might be a good idea. Wear a pullover and carry a real computer, and you're on your own.
It used to be a joke when we said "come the revolution" ....
Nothing new under the sun
Big fleas have little fleas,
Upon their backs to bite 'em,
And little fleas have lesser fleas,
and so, ad infinitum.
And the great fleas, themselves, in turn
Have greater fleas to go on;
While these again have greater still,
And greater still, and so on.
I know, no photo on my driving license either, but
Have you *never* been photographed by officialdom? Never held a passport? Never worked for an employer requiring photo-ID? Have you passed up your opportunity for a free bus pass (or intend to do so if you're not that old a fart yet?) And are you never going to move house (which will render your old driving license illegal, and require you to get one with a photo).
If so, congratulations! (though I'm not sure for what).
By the way, that driving license will expire when you reach 70.
Straw man argument
It takes a heck of a lot longer than 4.7 seconds to get each passenger into their seat on the plane. Even allowing for some parallelism, it's pretty optimistic. Last flight I was on (an A320), boarding took over half an hour, and the bottleneck was in the plane.
You're already in that database to be flying.
Your face is almost certainly stored permanently in a government-accessible database already. Your passport photograph, mandatory, if you ever travel international. Your driving license, probably, if not. Or your employer's photo-ID. Or your travelcard/pass (they've got all the OAPs this way). Or your benefit claim. I doubt there's one in fifty of us that they haven't yet snapped. That battle is lost (if it was ever fought at all).
In this case I'm inclined to believe that there is a real threat, and that computer face-recognition is faster and more reliable than a manual process (which would entail printing your photo onto your boarding pass at check-in).
Tech note: the computer is matching into a limited set, one plane-load of passengers to be allowed to board. That's a far easier task than the one for which a human brain is optimized, viz. "do I know this person?". We're not actually very good at matching unknown faces to photographs of strangers, a task which evolution never selected for, let alone at doing it fast.
Copyright on music
There are two copyrights. The copyright on the composition, which lapsed in Tudor times. And the copyright on the manuscript itself, which may still be current. Probably is, if the ink dried during the 20th or 21st centuries.
If so, you can re-publish by copying the music in your own hand creating a new visual artwork representing the same music. Or by entering it into a computer, and using a computer to typeset (music-set?) it. I believe that these days, up to a point, you can do this by playing it robotically on a keyboard, then correcting the mistakes made by the soulless machine. In the future the computer might even be able to translate from a performance back to a manuscript (like Mozart did with Allegri's misereri).
What you aren't allowed to do, is distribute photocopies of a copyright manuscript.
This does actually make sense. Writing out a score beautifully clear, by hand, is a laborious process (most composers' originals are not very pretty - Bach more so, Beethoven less so). Love, or money? Of course, when the human can be replaced by a computer scanning a score and re-setting it via a printer, the value of copyrights on a manuscript drops close to zero, just like it has done for out-of-copyright books of text that can be converted to ASCII files.
Reliable backup, cheap media
You can today. It's to another hard disk. An external drive the same size as your internal drive (or somewhat bigger if you maintain some degree of archive of deleted data ).
Yes, disks are slightly fragile. You'll therefore invest in two or more of them. One to be making the backup to, while the other(s) is(are) in its padded box in your offsite storage location's data safe, or whatever lesser degree of security you deem acceptable for a home machine.
Don't forget to do a disk integrity test as part of your backup-update operation to catch if longtime-stored data is suffering bit-rot. Copying the entire disk to the null device to check readability is one option. If the disk suddenly bricks itself, that's why you have more backup disks.
Too much work? Maybe. But don't blame hardware for laziness.
SSDs and platters are complementary
I really don't expect to see Terabyte SSDs for £40 using flash memory technology. Not ever. Using memristors, a decade or two in the future, maybe. Flash chips are already quite close to their physical limits. In contrast there are a couple of platter technologies that are already working in the labs, that can give a 10x, maybe a 100x, increase in areal density. (HAMR and patterned media).
I'd have thought the problem for Seagate is the mousetrap problem. They can build a better mousetrap, but will the world beat a path to their door? Do enough people have use for a 10Tb drive? For a 100Tb drive? Progress in IT will ultimately be limited by economics before it is limited by physics, as the economies of scale start to fade.
If I were at Seagate I'd be putting a lot of work into hybrid drives - Gb of flash memory write-through cache, with Tb of HD behind it.
Why not simple TDM
Why not just dedicate some fixed percentage of the fibre to QKD by time-division? In other words, (something like) every second, turn off the conventional transmitters at both ends for 0.1s, let the line go quiet (doesn't take long at the speed of light) and then do the QKD in that gap. You get QKD in exchange for 10% of your bandwidth. Most usages won't notice 0.1s drop-outs on a WAN.
Time-coherence between the ends is a problem solved by NTP and/or GPS.
All about fast *enough*, and energy needs
Until fairly recently, people wanted as much CPU power as they could get, subject to price and battery-weight constraints. that's why Cyrix etc. never really got a hold. The game has now changed. An Intel Atom or an ARM CPU is just about fast enough for some notebook (netbook) needs.
In a couple of years' time, these low-wattage CPUs will have gained quite a bit more CPU clout, and will be fast enough for many notebook and desktop needs. More so, if Microsoft for once brings out a slimmer nimbler version of Windows to better serve mobile devices, rather than a still-more-bloated one. (If MS gets this wrong, Google will be the winner)
At which point battle will be joined. ARM has the advantage of intrinsically better crunch per Watt. Intel has the advantage of the canonical architecture, and in he short run, the best Silicon process technology.
It'll be fun watching.
In general I agree, no point. If I don't know a company's domain I don't go guessing, I just type the company name into G^Hmy search engine of chioce. Is there anyone out there who doesn't?
Some important exceptions exist. Mostly, TLDs that could sell subdomains. myname.twitter, maybe. A few marketplaces restricted by subject (dominated by .xxx, but can imagine .antiques or .pets). More importantly, non-roman alphabets: .china in chinese, .russia in Cyrillic, etc.
A number of corporations will buy their TLD pronto because their defence against a domain-squatter might be very weak. .apple (it's a fruit), or .bbc (three letters formerly shared by Boston Business Computing, and probably a dozen other organisations in other countries and markets). Only the big guys, though, and they'll probably just set a redirect to their .com site and lose the expense in the "noise" of their IT budgets.
Wrong to you, ya boo sucks etc.
Whenever I have to go forward to Win 7 on someone else's machine "it takes twice as long to do anything (even when I remember the exact convoluted way to do it)." Proving what? ... that whatever we're most used to is easier. Meh.
And my own opinion is that 7 is crap compared to XP for productivity. But apart from sysadmins, who produces anything with an OS? Users run applications and produce with their apps. Office 2003 or 2007 or 2010 looks much the same on XP or on 7 or on a Mac (yes, I know, it's 2011 on a Mac).
The main reason for not upgrading is the cost of forced replacements. It's not just elderly PCs that are still OK for XP. It's also a host of printers, scanners and other useful gadgets that don't have Windows 7 drivers. Some places have "legacy" software that won't run under "7" and which will cost a fortune to migrate upwards or away from. Or even worse, software that has no migration path at all (vendor defunct, source code buried).
The other reason is the retraining cost. Even if you and your staff are capable of retraining themselves, their productivity will drop while they are un-learning the old way of doing things and finding out what the new way might be. And if that's going to happen all over again with Windows 8, delay makes more sense than burning bridges.
You got it
"Give me a fast, stripped down, stable OS and I'll upgrade."
It's called Linux.
Outsourcing CO2 emissions
The obvious problem I see is that the CO2 tax will encourage energy-intensive manufacturing to be outsourced and finished product to be imported. The net result will be a loss of jobs locally, and even higher global CO2 emissions because of the extra shipping involved.
Adding a CO2-emissions linked import tax would be a bureaucratic hightmare to administer, and would provide an incentive to further relocate manufacturing from a trustworthy regime to one where they'll work dirty and declare greenest.
Failure LED alternative
Make sure that the drive's serial number is written on a sticky label on the outside of its enclosure. If you don't have hot-swap enclosures it's also a good idea to write the serial number on a label towards the back of the drive, where it can be seen after it is installed.
Then when the system says something is wrong with (say) /dev/sdd, use "smartctl -i -d ata /dev/sdd" to find its serial number. In the case that it's bricked itself so bad that smartctl can't get the serial number, get the serial number of the /dev/sdx that are still working, and proceed by elimination. And don't forget to re-label the enclosure or new drive!
OK, I'll qualify that
I'll accept that enterprise-grade hardware RAID may be OK, if you are in that market. This article clearly isn't referring to that market. I wasn't either.
On a modern CPU and motherboard, the overhead of XORing two buffers in negligible. The SATA ports are independant and move data to RAM by DMA. The Memory bandwidth is adequate for RAID-5 operation, even during a rebuild. I've benchmarked it. The Hardware RAID was slower than the same controller in JBOD mode and software RAID. I've benchmarked it. I get pretty much the same performance from software RAID-5 as I get from a single disk, on flat-out all-write activity (the worst case). I got *better* performance from a 3Ware controller in JBOD mode with software RAID, than from hardware RAID-5 on the same controiler.
But even if there were a major efficiency penalty, which there isn't, I'd still take the software RAID. Ask yourself, in five years time, when your RAID controller croaks, are you certain that you'll be able to get a replacement controller with complete on-disk-format compatibility? Are you absolutely sure that if someone acidentally swaps two disk data cables, the controller won't trash your data? Are you absolutely certain that after the controller has been swapped, the next rebuild operation will work the way it should? Are you sure that you'll be OK even if the company that made your RAID controller has gone bust, or has been taken over by a venture capitalist who has sold it on to the highest bidder? And so on. Any answers you get, they'll be supplied by salesmen. Of course it'll be OK. (What was the question? Something technical I don't understand).
At the very best you are locked in to one controller vendor, with the only alternative being many hours downtime while you copy several terabytes from one array on an old controller to a new array on a new controller, quite probably across a network because you can't plug both old and new array into the one system.
I know that with Linux RAID I can shuffle the disks and it won't matter. I know I can take the disks out of one system and plug them into a completely different system, and have the same array up again minutes later. I know that I can replace 250Gb disks with 1Tb disks one at a time, and then resize the array to four times bigger. I know I can reshape a 3-disk array into a 5-disk array. I've done all these things. And I know it'll carry on working effective forever.
There is one critically important thing: make sure your RAID system is connected to a UPS, and that the UPS is correctly configured so that it *will* perform a clean system shutdown when its batteries get low. Battery-backed RAID controller I hear - well, let me tell about such a system, when the motherboard failed, and two disks got swapped when the thing was re-assembled in another box, working against the clock of a discharging battery. What my source thinks happened, is that it flushed its RAM cache onto the disks first, and only then noticed that the disks were swapped, and then quietly reconfigured its array so the filesystem corruption had plenty of time to spread. But of course, it's all secret-source firmware running on secret hardware, so the only certainty is that it barfed, and the data got scrambled.
Holding together usually isn't the problem
My experience is that if the cheap Chinese junk works, for some value of "works"defined by yourself, it holds together as well as anything else. I have a 4-port KVM+Printer switch that cost £6 and works as well as a £100 one for my needs. Ditto my Tesco mouse (a Sunday distress purchase that I'd come to like better than the original by Monday). The thing is, if these things stop working, I just trash them and buy another.
No good for valuable data, though. 99.99% isn't good enough and you don't notice the 0.01% data manglement until it's too late.
Table? On a train in the UK?
You don't know what luxury you enjoy. The only table you get on the lines I use is your lap. That's on a good day. Otherwise it's standing room only. On a bad day, cross out "room" and insert "sardines". On a really bad day add "next to a flatulent garlic-eater, at a stand-still for three hours and counting, at 110F and rising"
Does a mail loop bug really constitute Spam, given that you probably wanted the first copy of this information? Perhaps "Vindaloo" would be more appropriate.
Silicon CPUs won't go much above 4Ghz for good physical reasons. Assuming otherwise was the big mistake Intel made with the P4 design, which let AMD get ahead for a while.
Parallel processing of one sort or another is the only way we're ever going to get chips 10x or 100x the power of a current Intel or AMD CPU.
Perfectly OK on laps
I had one of these beasties perched on my lap recently. It was neither uncomfortably heavy nor uncomfortably hot. Obviously, it's heavier than most of today's models, but it wasn't long ago that 2.9kg was par for the course for mere 15inch models. I don't think that the extra two or three inches of width is going to cause particular problems for use on a plane or train. Arm-rests are normally at least 20in apart.
All told, I was rather impressed.
No advance warning of failure?
My experience is that the majority of hard drive failures (maybe 75%) are recoverable to a greater or lesser extent using a read-retry recovery tool like DDrescue. Also about half the failing disk drives I've seen flag up their deterioration through SMART, prior to any data loss at all.
i don't have enough SSD experence but I'd expect them to turn from datastore to brick in a microsecond, with absolutely no hope of recovering anything.
Of course, you've got backups anyway ;-)
I wish they'd stop trying to make bigger SSDs and market a small fast cheap one (under £30). I'd like to run the O/S off an SSD but keep the users' data on HD. And in my environment, that's TB RAID HD arrays on servers. No backup of the SSD or HD in the system box needed - just replace and reinstall.
Coloured cable tie best
If you use a black or natural tie, they might have a replacement to hand. Mine are the purple ones.
Ferret-legging punishment, 21st century style
Poetic justice would be that the device he'd hidden down his trousers burst into flames, courtesy of a defective Lithium battery and a rise in temperature.
A brain is highly fault-tolerant, at least with respect to well-distributed failures. Neurons die as we age. One of the things we need to do is work out how to make networks of millions of CPUs similarly faut-tolerant.
Why bother? Curiosity, and an assumption that at some point in the future the electricity bills will be reduceable. The Met office always has a next-generation weather-forecasting program to hand, which they can prove is better than the program currently used in all respects except one. That one respect is that on the currently available hardware, it forecasts tomorrow's weather several days after tomorrow!
A thermostat is self aware - really?
How do you prove that?
Levels of meaning
My "must" referred to the physics. I could equally well have said that quantum effects must be of significance to the design of a start-of-the-art CPU (20nm gates, 0.8V supply voltage, etc).
In the CPU, the significance is that they cause things regarded as bad by the designers, like charge leakage (leading to higher power consumption and waste heat) and electronic noise (meaning extra efforts have to be made to keep the circuitry reliably binary, again leading to increased power consumption).
In a brain, it's presently very unclear what Nature has done with the quantum effects that must be present at the synaptic level. Worked around them as in the CPU? Or, the minority view, embraced them and worked out how to build a much better platform for thinking with? Or, the minority-minority view, allowed consciousness to arise as an essentially quantum phenomenon?
It might do
It's possible (but thermodynamically improbable) that the gold might dissolve while you weren't looking, at a rate very many orders of magnitude greater than for any other chunk of gold ever observed.
If someone else dumps cyanide waste, or a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, on top of your gold, the likelyhood of its disappearance is considerably enhanced ;-)
In either case, it's an inanimate Schrodinger's cat until you observe it.
We can't solve the halting problem
Human's can't solve the halting problem either. There are many hypotheses in mathematics lacking a proof, such as the Goldbach Conjecture(*). We just give up on a too-hard problem (just the same as a programmable computer with a proper operating system will be interruptible by its real-time clock and devices, and ultimately, by its frustrated programmer.
Godel proved that some of these hypotheses will in fact be undecidable within the accepted (finite) framework (set of axioms) of Mathematics. No complete self-consistent system can be based on a finite set of axioms. One may have to extend mathematics by admitting the theorem, or its opposite, as an axiom ... but of course, doing so for something that is in fact decidable risks defining as true that which is provably false, or vice versa.
(*) that every even number greater than two can be expressed as the sum of two primes in at least one way. So "obvious", yet still unproven more than 350 years after it was first stated.
Use Linux - at least for stress-testing these drives to get to the bottom of the problem. Unlike Windows, you'll get some meaningful diagnostic information!
(And if, as I rather hope, they don't actually fail, then you can point the finger back at Microsoft-quality code designed for hard drives not SSDs).
Hydrogen really not a problem, outdoors
In the open air you can't get an explosive hydrogen/air accumulation. Hydrogen on its own has no explosive properties. If someone gets really careless and manages to ignite the balloon, it'll burn strongly upwards (away from them).
It's not well-known that the majority of the passengers in the Hindenburg disaster survived. Of those who didn't, many died of wounds caused by jumping from too great a height, or by heavy metal components of the airship falling onto them. And that was one helluva large balloon.
The fatal flaw of the Hindenburg, was using an inflammable material for its outer skin. You wouldn't do anything that silly, would you?
Brain: Classical or Quantrum computing device?
Some people think that the real question that needs addressing is whether brains are classical computing devices, or quantum computing devices.
If the former, then once the right interconnect and neuron code is arrived at, this simulator might be as smart as a cat.
If the latter, it hasn't got a hope - you'd need that much computing to simulate a single synapse (and even then, only after making a lot of approximations).
Brain as quantum computer is a minority view. However, a synapse is small enough and sufficiently low-energy that quantum effects must be of significance there. The eye, which is a sensor-extension of the brain, demonstrably is a single-quantum detector. And personally, I would be very surprised if evolution had not found a way to exploit quantum effects, rather than just treating them as a source of noise to be beaten into submission.
An even more minority view is that consciousness is a quantum effect.
As a parting shot, where is the code in a solitary spider-hunting wasp, for identifying appropriate prey, stinging in exactly the right place to paralyze it while avoiding becoming prey of the spider, selecting an appropriate site to dig a burrow, entomb spider, lay egg, etc? It is built-in, not learnt. Ditto in a honeybee or termite, for complex colony formation, though in these cases there may be some form of learning or "culture". None of these insects boasts more than a million neurons.
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