Re: Vinyl introduces a lot of failings
44.1 khz is an appropriate choice for the technology when CDs were invented. (No, I do not know why 44.1 rather than 44.8 or some other number). Today you could certainly do better. 16 bits likewise. (Perhaps if 6-bit bytes had won out in the 1970s we'd have had 18-bit CDs, with a maximum play time about 12% less)
The relevant maths is Shannon's sampling theorem. 44.1 kHz perfect sampling allows encoding of input frequencies up to 22.05 kHz. Higher frequencies get "aliased" so input at 23kHz would get reproduced as noise at 21.10kHz (ie wrapped back along the audio spectrum from 22.05kHz). Which is fairly OK because the highest frequency you can hear is around 20KHz and the highest you can appreciate musically is half that or less. So they put a sharp analog filter in the input signal (prior to sampling) to attenuate frequencies above 20kHz.
Contrast this with the garbage generated by lossy mp3 and similar coding, with tonal artifacts inserted across the entire audio spectrum. Music encoded onto and back from a CD remains musical. Music encoded as lossy-mp3 and decoded is horribly degraded. In my case, I can't regard the resulting noise as properly musical. So I'll stick to CDs, and hopefully before they stop making CDs they'll offer losslessly encoded downloads as standard.
As to vinyl? Well, in basic form it introduces only musical distortion (mostly 3rd harmonic "warmth") and ignorable neutral noise (hiss, clicks from dust or damage). If you never, ever touch the recorded part of the vinyl surface, and never played your vinyl with anything except a deck and stylus of the highest quality, and don't ever play it more than a couple of dozen times, and change the stylus often enough, and provided the master was cut by an expert, and providing the sub-masters weren't used to press too many vinyl disks, and provided you've got sufficient decoupling between your deck and the loud bass from your speakers, ... vinyl can give a CD a decent run. But the price in money and convenience is higher than most are willing to pay.