Re: @M Gale
"Scientific enquiry in the modern sense was more likely to arise from monotheistic belief in a universe governed by God through laws of nature, than from polytheistic or atheistic belief in an essentially chaotic and capricious universe."
A bit like the Greeks, who were quite advanced for their time despite having an entire pantheon of gods. Or maybe the Romans, who adopted monotheism at about the same time their entire civilisation went kaput? The Egyptians performed some minor miracles with a sound knowledge of building materials and an almost endless supply of cheap, disposable labour. Oh, they were pretty polytheist, too, what with horus, ra, and set and all the rest.
The key thing here is that religion served to concentrate wealth and control. Once that had happened, one person with a brain can control an army, if they believe said person has some kind of godliness in them. It's okay to waste 100,000 people on a bloody big triangular coffin if your local collection of sky-fairies say it's what you're supposed to do.
I will reiterate: Religion has not served to advance science one iota.
...and what's this about "belief in a chaotic and capricious universe" being an "atheist" belief?