124 posts • joined 18 Aug 2008
Re: Fees for requiring unneeded trips
"You could all be watching the same copy, rather than downloading it from Netflix separately. Netflix has these cache boxes, and provides them to the ISPs for free. But AT&T and Comcast refuse to take them, instead insisting that Netflix stream each copy separately from Amazon's datacenters - multiplying by thousands the bandwidth unnecessarily. This is as bad "
Yes, but it's Netflix's choice complicated by Amazon's choice of location for it's datacentres. So Netflix has cache boxes. They're not free, they require space, power, cooling and bandwidth. If Netflix wants those services, most ISPs offer them as collocation and transit and charge accordingly. There are also potential neutrality implications. If ISPs offer this free to the market leader, should they also offer the same terms to any other content provider? If ISPs offer CDN services, why wouldn't Netflix use those rather than forcing proprietary systems on operators? And if ISPs do special deals for Netflix, wouldn't that be potentially anti-competitive behaviour and harm the companies like Akami etc who've invested in CDN? If there were a common caching standard and protocols, wouldn't that make life easier for everyone?
As for Amazon, that's another example of where Netflix may have made a bad decision. AWS and CloudFront for Europe are located just outside Dublin. That may be attractive for tax reasons, but isn't exactly central for Europe and costs more for capacity than more traditional locations like London, Amsterdam, Frankfurt, Paris etc. Why would ISPs pay to increase capacity to Ireland to benefit Netflix, and also Amazon when both compete with operators CDN, content and compute services.
"What Mr AT&T seems to have somehow overlooked in his little diatribe is that - Netflix do pay bandwidth costs - just like every other service on the internet - in order to get their data piped across the public internet - they pay someone, probably multiple someones."
I doubt he's overlooked it, and as the FCC's consulting on this at the moment, expect more opinions from the involved parties. Level 3's been complaining as well-
"To honor the promises they make consumers, these ISPs must then connect their networks to the other networks that can supply any Internet content the ISPs cannot provide themselves (which is most of it). It also means that as overall Internet content gets bigger (think of HD movies versus e-mails), all providers must “augment” their networks – making them bigger to accommodate the exponential growth due to the Internet’s success."
The problem is still a split set of contractual obligations and payments. Netflix pays Level 3 to deliver content, so presumably if that content can't be delivered, Level 3 should be expected to pay some of the costs to make sure it can. Consumers then have contracts with Netflix to deliver content, and pay Netflix; and consumers also have contracts with their ISPs to deliver 'up to xxMbps' of Internet with some SLA attached.
Content providers like Netflix, and transit providers like Level 3 & Cogent then assume that because the user is paying their ISP, all costs for delivering content should be borne by the user. Access provider networks like AT&T are suggesting the content providers should contribute more towards the costs of delivering their content. If the FCC disagrees, the access ISPs are going to have to recover increased costs from their customers, or switch more towards usage charging models to avoid penalising light users. The content providers aren't taking their positions for the good of the 'net though, they're doing it to avoiding having to pay.
Re: auto update?
"Does their auto updater (accessed through the control panel) not work then?"
Depends on your definition of 'work'. If you mean automatically launches itself at startup telling you there's a new version of Flash despite setting update checks to 'never', then no it does not work. I live in hope that some day Adobe will release an updater that simply does what you tell it to do.
Re: Its not that people are stupid
"Hence the service would still work, but quality would be absolutely abysmal, yet the same customer can download 5Gb files in minutes - As far as the customer is concerned the connection is working at a reasonable speed, so they will lay the blame with Netflix!"
Corrcctly assigning blame is always the challenge, and subject of frequent peering battles. A lot of current degradation is due to capacity issues at the interconnects with ISPs, and the net neutrality argument is often about who should pay for them. If degradation is due to Netflix (or any OTT provider) maxing out their interconnect, who should pay for the upgrades, and how should those upgrades be priced?
Dear $deity, no.
Please give me dumb switchgear and not 'smart dashboards'. I want RealButtons and RealSwitches that are tactile, provide positive feedback and don't jump around depending on display mode. And also mean I spend less time taking my eyes off the road to try and figure out what the GUI is doing. Which is probably telling me I'm about to crash and would I like to choose from one of this list of personal injury lawyers?
Re: I'm going to repeat a post I made on another forum; it has relevance.
- terrorism laws lead to the relaxation of carefully guarded rights, obligations, and expectations. It is now apparently acceptable to monitor *all* communications - even if 'only' for traffic analysis
It's not just terrorism laws, but technology in general that are eroding rights and expectations. Pretty much every 'net connected company seems to think it's acceptable to do traffic or social analysis using whatever data they can get their grubby mits on. And are far less regulated than the T or FLAs.
Marketing told us: 'Justin Bieber is a fad. He’s not going to last.' – Company formerly known as RIM
"The FBI, CIA and the Defense Humint Service all have HUMINT operations in Second Life and other GVEs and are very interested in forming a deconfliction and tipping group that would be able to collaborate on operations."
Translation: Have staffers keen to play MMOs all day, in the interests of national security, naturally. Wonder if they consulted EVE players, then retreated to WoW and Second Life?
(OB RIP VileRat, who knew a thing or two about operations, HUMINT etc and was sadly killed in the Libyan embassy attack)
delivery charges in grammes or grains?
"30mm Oerlikon cannon"
Yes please. Or at the risk of invoking wheelguns vs automatics, Oerlikon's Millenium cannon. Or nothing says 'keep out of my backyard' like your own Skyshield system. But although fun, I can't help thinking a spot of hacking would end up more lucrative
Re: If only more customers had clue
You may be in luck then. Sending white papers isn't necessarily a good indication of clue, but communal purchasing may be. And you're luckier than being a tenant in a building where the FMCo tries to lock you into their voice & dtata services. Some buildings do this well, many do it badly.
Best way is to stick to simple transport and look for a way to get cheap/reliable 1G or 10G Ethernets. I'm guessing the tender will involve dark fibre (preferably diverse) from site to 1 or (preferably more) 'carrier neutral' datacentre. Things to watch out for would be O&M on the DF and additional charges for DC patching. If you think telco charges are bad, look into patch costs. Oh, and if you fancy another white paper, one asking about the rateable value of fibre would be helpful. He who lights the fibre gets the bill.
Other pitfalls to avoid tend to occur in the DC. A commodity switch with 24/48 10/100/1000 ports is nice and cheap. But if they're copper, they're distance limited which means media convertors, which means more cost and space/power required. Telco oriented switches (MRV, Ciena, Transmode etc) do pluggables making optical or electrical handoff easier. Then you just need service providers that are willing (or able) to x-connect their stuff to yours, which can be a challenge in itself with some suppliers.
If the FMC wants to play higher up the stack, well, good luck with that. There be real monsters :)
If only more customers had clue
Problem with the DIY approach is Mr Dabbs would then have to figure out how to resell and manage 80+ medja companies contending a 1G EAD. This could be non-trivial, but amusing as a spectator sport.
The £4k civils quoted isn't bad. Costs would include the basic coring, running a new lateral, running fibre, splicing it into the 'manhole' (or chamber), installing a BFP, splicing into that, running ducts to this customer's 'comms room', installing an ODF, splicing to the ODF, splicing the metro fibre possibly at a few points on the way to the service node, testing the fibre and then handing the job to the fluffy guys to turn it into a service this customer wants. I may have missed a few bits out, but this part's often the easy bit.
There would also be contactinng the landlord/agent for wayleave, preparing method statements, risk assessments etc. In serviced buildings, agents may want a wayleave fee, riser rentals or just their legal costs paid. This part can take a lot longer. Especially if the landlord/agent already has a service company which may be competing.
Luckily if the chamber's in the path, there wouldn't be as much paperwork involved with the council, or costs for traffic management. Plus if you're really unlucky, the council's stopped the road so it can't be dug up again for a couple of years.
But getting fibre into buildings isn't as trivial as many people think, or as cheap as they think it should be. Neither is terminating it and turning it into a resellable service, but this is the sensible way to spread the costs. A follow-up with the solution from the winning bidder would be interesting.
Impersonal personal information for no purposeful purpose
"is not personal but viewing information," the statement explains. The information is collected, it says, in order to provide "more relevant advertisement"
It doesn't collect any personal information, but uses what it collects to try and serve more personalised information. This is an explanation only a marketing person (overshadowed by counsel) could make with a straight face. How could it make adverts "more relevant", unless it understood the personal characteristics of the person it's targetting?
Traditonal date for launching rockets
November 5th. Although not in India, unless it's become part of Diwali. But good on India. We've been busy navel gazing and whining about potential resource shortages and India looks up for a solution.
Re: Perhaps it's those nice "white hat hackers"...
<opens process list>
Yup, I'm still infected. Hopefully the hackers will make a patch to kill herpes-like Adobe TSR processes.
It's the commoditisation of the Internet. Back in the good'ol days, access and knowledge about telco infrastructure was limited to mostly those that worked for telcos and some big corporates. Along came the interwebz and now anyone can play with most of the same kit as telcos/ISPs/IXPs use. An Internet exchange isn't particularly sophisticated and mostly just a collection of big switches. Or for smaller exchanges, smaller switches that can be picked up on Ebay. And the IXP's 'public', so an exercise in how to break out of the forwarding plane to the control plane.
And being commodity kit, once you've done that, you've got the same exploit to attack similar targets like trading exchanges, large corporates etc etc.
Want to gain access to a GRX core router?
Buy a connection and peer with it. It's how GRX exchanges usually work.
Der Spiegel doesn't appear to have asked anyone in industry about this or their previous article. Belgacom doesn't own (many) submarine cables and the ones listed are consortium or 'club' cables. Telcos invest in those in exchange for capacity and other perks like controlling the landing stations, and thus making money off backhaul sales. Having rights to a percentage of the capacity doesn't automatically mean access to SLTs or muxes that would give potential access to other member's capacity.
Re: access to documents by unix/linux credentials only?
I don't get the credentials, or lack thereof. If the data's encrypted on the system/server, a sysadmin can fiddle to their hearts content. They could move stuff with a memory stick, but unless they could decrypt it, they couldn't leak it. It's harder to manage, but surely a lot more secure?
Lingerie advertising becoming a lot more expensive under a pay-per-gaze model.
Re: Blocking isn't easy
Yep. It's an application layer problem, not a network one. Novel idea for promoting IPv6 adoption though. Use it so future takedown notices can target you more accurately. Plus it may still not work. Configure this:
ipv6 address 2002:0db8:6301::/128 anycast
on v6 links in several jurisdictions :)
Re: Blocking isn't easy
The 'net still uses 1938 concepts like packet headers or envelope addresses. ISP's look (or are supposed to look) at the address, not the content. DPI boxen to look deeper ain't cheap.
Re: Basic tort law ?
<blockquote>Surely an innocent commercial website that can demonstrate a monetary loss would have standing to take the ISPs to court for damages ? I would humbly suggest on a basis of negligence.</blocking>
You may be negligent in picking the target of your sue-ball. ISP produces copy of the court order specifying the IP address to be blocked. ISPs block it. I would humbly suggest we need to see a copy of the court order first and what actions that instructed the ISPs to take.
Re: Better than less, I suppose
The constraints are usually a combination of physical and economic, not political. Pipes are narrow due to costs and infrastructure limits. You could have your small apartment building. You could offer 10Gbps to each flat. You could offer a 100Gbps backhaul link. 10G switches with 100G uplinks are available now.
You could think about 100G to every apartment, but your switch would cost more than the average apartment, especially if you filled it with transceivers that currently cost $20k+ a go. Your tenants would also need 100G NICs on their kit, and iGadgets don't include those yet. You'd also be unlikely to saturate the bandwidth given the constraints would be at the far end. There aren't many 100G servers installed yet because the costs are very high as 100G currently costs more than 10x10G. Customer perception can be that 100G should be cheaper, and it isn't, yet. Plus you'd need servers that could saturate a 100G link, and avoid SPOFs compared to 10x10G servers and a distribution switch.
And the main technical constraint would still be the number of wavelengths you can get down a fibre, which gives you the cost per wavelength. Technology allows more bits per wavelength, but it's done less to reduce the practical costs of installing and maintaining fibre.
Re: ISP's should only provide access and bandwidth...nothing else!(@ Dan Paul)
"We pay the ISPs for access to the whole Internet, not to some subset arbitrarily chosen by an interested party."
I've got a 50Mbps connection. Why can't I get 50Mbps to livehotyaks.mn? My ISP's fault, or the Mongolian ISP's fault? As for Kroes' comment-
"After all, when you buy a carton of milk, you don't expect it to be half-empty:"
Yet when you buy a carton of cornflakes or soap powder, it usually is half-empty. Maybe ISP's should just add a label saying 'packets may settle during transit'. Or peering.
Re: 20 European Freeriders ask Kroes to defend real open internet
"Network access providers must be prohibited from blocking, degrading, hindering (including through application and/or service specific price surcharges) and throttling targeted at applications, services, content or protocols."
That's a shame. ISPs better turn off their DDOS protection systems as they throttle applications, services, content and protocols. ISPs better not even hint at offering QoS to allow better quality voice, video or real-time application usage. That would allow better speech or video quality, or even improved twitch gaming, but would sadly violate 'net neutrality'. Too bad the 'net will have to stay best efforts
It starts with a bit of a false premise-
"throwing buckets of bandwidth at any problem, and attaching the intelligence to the network edge, it could ship bits around vastly cheaper than telco carrier networks"
This is not strictly true given the 'net is fundamentally reliant on telco/carrier networks. It also depends on a definition of 'edge'. At the extreme edge, ie customer premise, the network doesn't need to be very intelligent. If you've only got 1 connection to the 'net, deciding where your traffic goes next isn't difficult. If you've got an IP connection to a PoP, that PoP may typically only have 2 connections to the rest of the 'net, so routing decision is perhaps left or right, or maybe back out another interface for P2P or local traffic. So for basic networking, you don't really need much intelligence.
Problem is and was router vendors make a lot of money selling routers, which are 'intelligen't devices that end up spending most of their lives doing simple forwarding. Their business is and was challenged by dumber networks (eg Ethernet) in the volume space at the edges of the network. Use cheap Ethernet to aggregate and forward to somewhere with some brains, if it needs a routing decision. Adding expensive routers into the network just adds unecessary costs. Putting more intelligence into the network can reduce bandwidth by using it more efficiently.
"I take it this means 2 networks, the biggie for user data + a mini on top for control, is that right? "
Kind of, but it's more about communication between the network and the service layer/user data. At the moment there's little communication between those layers. Suppose a customer has a 2x 10G pipes. One's full because their router says that's the best route. The other is practically empty. With better signalling, the network could potentially shift traffic onto the idle link or increase capacity. Same could be done if a circuit was degraded. QoS gets more contentious given the net neutrality arguments.
"I thought that's what big switches/routers/whatever were doing, though I don't understand the comment about 'more generic servers'"
If you're switching or forwarding most of the traffic, then intelligence in most of the network is less complex, so cheaper. So with an MPLS network as an example, put the Internet into a VRF and if it needs to make a routing decision, forward that to a route server. Which doesn't need to be an expensive router.
"How, how, how, with magic or something?"
By offering value-added services, or simply better performing services. Challenge would be overcoming user perception that networks are big, dumb, bit pipes that should be cheap.
"And how is anyone who doesn't do heavy duty networking supposed to decipher this article?"
Same way you would any marketing.. use caution, examine the claims. Try and figure out how adding cost reduces price :p
There's an app in this
Spam people with urgent messages as they're approaching accident blackspots
Send follow-up spam from personal injury claim chasers
Re: connection comes with a 99 per cent contract guarantee
"Out for an hour? lets say you pay $1000 a month for your rack. Assuming 30 days that is 720 hours in the month $1.30 an hour. Your refund after an hour of being off-line? $1.30. And that is standard operating practice for the industry."
Yup. Your compensation is based on the price of the service provided. If you want compensation based on direct or consequential losses, you can pay more for a service, or try to insure against those losses. Sadly, many companies treat network as a commodity and push for the lowest possible cost. Then complain when the business is offline. YGWYPF.
With Xbox and always-on junk, they're just more traffic generators to congest access, core and distribution networks. MS will pay for pipes from their DCs to peering or transit points, your ISP will pay the rest of the carriage costs. You'll pay your ISP, and your contract may include a usage quota and fairly pricey per-GB overage charges. If the 'always on' requirement is the occasional DRM packet, it shouldn't generate too much overage. If it's keeping you constantly up to date with the latest ads, MS will get paid to deliver that essential content to you, you will pay to receive it whether you want it or not. And it's unlikely the Xbox will let you install an adblocker.
It will be interesting to see how MS advertises the TCO of Xbox, and how much traffic it will likely generate by being always-on.
Re: research my arse
Best example of BT R&D priorities then and now may be this-
and it's inexorable shift from hardware to software. And outsourcing. Last published 2009.
Re: This makes no sense.
"I just don't get it. The game has a workable offline mode (minus being able to save),"
Sort of. You appear to be able to build a single city, but not trade with other cities in the region. But then that part seems to be horribly broken. The design appears to encourage specialised cities (small maps help), so figure on a residential city commuting to an industrial one. Nice idea except the residential city ends up with high unemployment and industrial lots of vacancies followed by abandoned businesses. Because you can't save and rollback, if a city goes bust you may have to abandon the region and start again. Especially when shipping cash to try and bail out a city is a tad random.. Or your money wagon gets stuck in traffic thanks to the terrible pathing.
Re: Selling a game / Capacity planning- Now with added irony.
"but now with IaaS (Infrastructure as a service) like AWS, Azure and other clouds the investment is virtually null, you just pay for the capacity you are using. So invest (buy) server farm to cope for use at D+30 and rent capacity for the rest"
Amusingly the game appears to be relying on AWS, so Amazon's removal from sale may be partly due to self-preservation if Sims are eating the farm(s). I'm guessing due to the removal of iner-city transactions it's an IO problem between cities, especially if they somehow end up on different VMs.
Re: Privacy? What it is?
Mine'd be a shabby suit and a handy Mace. Strange Days/Angela Bassett version. Or possibly something liberally decorated with Omron aka EURion patterns. Or just a QR Code pointing to a bot/crawler trap.
Wearable computing is just another potential vector for amusement, and I'm disappointed that Seattleites can only come up with something as lo-tech as an ass whooping.
Re: So how about...holey fibres bankman!
Already being made. See here for more info-
Challenge at the moment is making them in long enough lengths. Splicing also becomes.. challenging.
Not: Bufferbloat, but regulatory bloat
"“It’s a problem we all notice when you’re using a program like Skype. If anyone else in the house is watching a video at the same time – your video connection becomes jerky and often crashes," professor Gorry Fairhurst, internet engineer at Aberdeen, said"
One solution is called QoS. Prioritise delay sensitive traffic, buffer less time critical traffic. Already standardised, widely used on private internets.So funding is presumably a way to re-invent that particular wheel without getting the Net Neutrality fanatics excited,
Re: I don't get why TWC are complaining
"Not sure I get this. Under most BGP routing arrangements, it's "hot potato". You hand off to a peer/transit connection as soon as you can."
That works for Netflix. Build out a CDN to peering exchanges. Take advantage of low cost, bulk bandwidth to those peering exchanges. Make the ISPs an offer they can't refuse, ie peer with us or your transit gets it. ISP refuses to peer and their route to Netflix is via a transit provider which costs the ISP ££. Cost per bit for Netflix is much cheaper than cost to ISP for their access networks. Netflix charges their customer £5.99/month and contributes nothing to any of the ISP's capacity costs. So basically it's a lopsided economics problem where costs and revenues are misaligned. Which is nothing new on the Internet.
For CATV networks like TWC there are more economic arguments, ie they may have been used to charging content providers for carriage on the TV, or paid for channels and the Internet and OTT services like Netflix have broken that model.
Re: I've got a bad feeling about this...
"They announced last year that they are stopping the trails due to core infrastructure upgrade. Still no word on when new trails will start up again."
The IETF doesn't understand networks, which is why calls from netheads to de-fund the ITU get amusing. The ITU develop global standards, which is why the Internet works. Buy an STM-64 or an OTU-2 pretty much anywhere in the world and you'll get the same thing, and how it works is pretty tightly defined. Netheads however like Ethernet, because Ethernet is perceived as cheap. Which it can be, if you know what you're buying.
If you're buying it for xDSL backhaul, knowing about MTU size is important if your IP traffic is turned into PPOE and carried over an L2TP tunnel over an Ethernet. Which is a bunch of extra header bytes that may not fit in the 'standard' MTU of an Ethernet link. So you get fragmentation, which can be a bad thing. You may get it earlier if your Ethernet is EoMPLS because you need bytes for the MPLS lables as well. That can be.. challenging with v4 networks, especially if they're expecting to be able to send a 1500 byte frame and set the DF bits. Add IPv6 into the mix and your overhead bloats given the address inflation.
But this is OK, because you are not allowed to fragment IPv6 packets at the router. If they're fragmented, they just get dropped and you may or may not become aware of this depending on how well (or badly) PMTUD has been implemented. The IETF workaround is to specify a minimum MTU of 1280 bytes, which may just work on Ethernet links that don't support jumbos, baby jumbos or pink elephants. 1280 is of course less than you get with IPv4, so goodput on large packet transfers will have to drop to ensure delivery. It's less efficient (by a lot with small packets), but that's progress for you.
would you like a cookie?
"You know EVERYTHING about me, but can you show relevant ads? Nope"
I never understood why the big adbrokers think they know my interests better than I do. None of the adbrokers seem to offer an easy way for me to list the kind of stuff I'm actually interested in and might buy.
Re: It's about standards, not censorship
"You have entirely missed the point. It's not about standards, it's about control. And it's not about the ITU, it's about governments."
Telecoms and the Internet are already about governments. You may have heard of Ofcom and even the Communications Act. All governments have similar legislation to regulate their communications markets. Because the world is interconnected, they also delegate standards work to bodies like the ITU. Vested interests have spun this as a control/censorship/privacy thing yet conveniently ignore that DPI and intercept capabilities are already baked into most equipment. For example-
show how the two largest router vendors comply with US legislation, which all US providers are meant to support.
As for naming and addressing, what's the problem with that being under more neutral or even formal control? ICANN's done an excellent (/sarc) job with it's new .TLDs. What if ISPs decide not to bother implementing them in their DNS? Governments could legislate to make that a condition of CSP's licences, ICANN has no real power to make anyone do anything. The US decides to go it's own way and it's no big deal, the Internet was designed to route around problems after all.
It's about standards, not censorship
Would you shudder at the concept of non-government bodies having the power to censor or filter material? For a lot of people, Google does this already.
The ITU isn't about censorship, it's about standards and interoperability. This is why you can buy an STM-16 or STM-64 pretty much anywhere in the world and know exactly how it will perform. Buy a 1Gbps or 10Gbps Ethernet and you may not. One is tightly defined, one isn't.
The anti-ITU arguments aren't really about censorship either, they're about money and 'net economics. The current Internet is a best efforts network. Some applications like VoIP, live video or online gaming would benefit from traffic prioritisation. To prioritise traffic fairly, some form of packet inspection may be needed. To implement SDN (Software Defined Networking), some packet inspection may be needed. To make that work reliably internationally, reliable standards are needed.
If the US or the US's big content providers don't want a more efficient network and would prefer a dumb, best-efforts Internet then that's fine and can be supported. Simply strip any priority tags off their packets at peering and transit points. They can keep a 'neutral' connection but if other users want their real-time apps delivered with higher quality of service, that could be provided.
But I see a market for the sWaP Nova EC107. And maybe the C99 for hardcore felons.
Re: Antarcitc ice cap is NOT "growing".
"The Antarctic ice cap is not growing as stated in the article"
Truth is we don't really know. Sea ice is a little easier to measure. Take pictures, count pixels of stuff that looks like ice. Compare to previous images, publish ice extent. Land ice is a bit trickier as that's a volumetric measurement, which is where GRACE comes in. Assumptions about Antarctic and Greenland ice mass balances are made using data from instruments which attempt to determine mass by gravity mapping. Which is new and complex, hence the years of debate around trying to get GRACE calibrated so the results can be understood and data then applied to theories like ice mass changes. Over the last 5 years the biggest changes in land ice cover have been down to different interpretations of GRACE data, not cAGW.
Re: Justice is served
If you got 28 oil industry execs to lobby the Bbc, the green lobby groups would be all over it like a rash. This case simply shows it's ok for anonymous lobby groups to influence Bbc editorial policy. They will be protected.
Because having done the scheme, suitable candidates will find themselves with skills and experience that is still valuable in the private sector. Especially to companies contracting those people back to the government on secure projects. The services will probably still struggle to retain staff whilst pay rates and cost of living are high and the private sector can pay more.
Re: WoW is for carebears
I dunno, holding any decent 0.0 space is probably a lot harder than holding a seat on a small town council. Labour probably won't play EVE though cos they're reds. NBSI FTW!
Re: Five Grand?
"Late last year, when a reporter pointed out to Hall that 97 per cent of the 1,372 climate researchers polled by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences agreed that human activities contribute to global warming"
Sadly the author seems to have confused two studies to come up with the 97% figure. Originally that was from an opinion survey published by Doran et al which found after whittling down responses-
Once all these cuts were made, 75 out of 77 scientists of unknown qualifications were left endorsing the global warming orthodoxy. The two researchers were then satisfied with their findings. Are you?
The PNAS paper by Anderegg et al didn't bother to poll researchers, just-
Here, we use an extensive dataset of 1,372 climate researchers and their publication and citation data to show that (i) 97–98% of the climate researchers most actively publishing in the field
attempt to analyse publications using Google Scholar. After excluding any they disagreed with. More on that one here-
The study by Anderegg et al. (1) employed suspect methodology that treated publication metrics as a surrogate for expertise.
which is fairly normal for climate science.
Ok, so someone loaded Scorpion Stare into the CCTV and then broadcast Power Word, Kill over the PA. Tech and magic just don't mix.
Re: Vaseline voides warranty
You need iLube. $19.95 per ml. It's made from unicorns.
Looking at it in a different way..
"In any subnet, at least two addresses are unusable: the one with all the low-order bits zero (network address, e.g. 184.108.40.206)"
That's RFC950 thinking, not RFC1878. Or even post-IOS 12.0. CIDR made some aspects of old-school thinking obsolete and you can happily use subnet zero (most of the time). Far more IP addresses are probably wasted by people assigning /30s to point-point links when they don't need to. See RFC3021 for more info.
Improvised bacon roll
1)Fry bacon in decent sized round pan. Remove bacon once cooked to prefered consistency
2)Add decent round pita/tortilla bread to pan. Cook to soak up bacon goodness from pan.
3)Remove bread, add bacon to bread, add condiments according to conscience/availability
Re: Simple! Just ignore that the data you like has been pre-adjusted.
"Should be easy then to show everyone the part of the code that "revised up recent temperatures and revised down past temperatures, to exaggerate the trend". Yet no-one has ever demonstrated it..."
It's not Hansen's algorithm that's being investigated in this paper, it's the data that's being fed to the algorithm. If that data has been pre-warmed, as Watts et al appear to show, then it's a simple case of GIGO. GISS's ultra-distance Kridging around the Arctic aside. It's a problem that is also not constrained to the US given poor station siting appears to be a global, man-made phenomena. It may also appear that blind faith in data quality is also a widespread phenomenon within mainstream climate science.
Is it water ice, or frozen gas? If it's gas, then maybe the rubble's playing air hockey. H/T to The Forever War and it's description of the hazards of going hot-foot across frozen gas fields.
Google makes huge bundles of cash from wrapping ads around other people's content. Much like traditional broadcasters. Unlike traditional broadcasters, Google hasn't been investing in producing original new content. Doing so would be a change in it's model, and no doubt upset the broadcasters because Google could afford a lot of hours of drama, if it wanted. It did do a future-Google product placement in Babylon A.D. after all.
As for the BBC, if you want to imagine TV hell, just imagine if the BBC had made Game of Thrones in it's usual PC focus-grouped to death and offend nobody house style.
- Analysis Oh no, Joe: WinPhone users already griping over 8.1 mega-update
- Leaked pics show EMBIGGENED iPhone 6 screen
- Opportunity selfie: Martian winds have given the spunky ol' rover a spring cleaning
- OK, we get the message, Microsoft: Windows Defender splats 1000s of WinXP, Server 2k3 PCs
- Episode 4 BOFH: Oh DO tell us what you think. *CLICK*