Re: chip-making facilities.
It is worth pointing out the Arm chips were designed not to need high end chip making facilities…
Be that as it may, nowadays there isn't really anything but high-end. 28nm is yesterday's news but how many companies are making the components for the process. And you're still going to need clean rooms and the discipline required. Meanwhile, over the last 10 years Russia's productivity (and life expectancy) has been stagnant at best.
Buoyed by a high oil price, Putin has showered money on the military, though it still pales in comparison to Soviet days (which is why it is buying tech from France, Germany and elsewhere) and some of the cleverer electronics stuff is still done in Ukraine, and pet social projects. This has disguised an increasingly uncompetitive economy - uncompetitive economies are notoriously bad at keeping skilled workers.
But, as has been pointed out elsewhere probably the best argument against the "hardening" up the CPU is that it's probably the least interesting part to hack. I believe the NSA has already been demonstrated to have implemented a backdoor on a network interface. Then again, the leaks of recorded conversations by the KGB/FSB of foreigners indicates that that at least is an area where the Russians are still on the top of their game.