For those addicted to the android or iOS phones (any cell phone, with or without GPS, actually), an easy way to protect yourself is to create a "Faraday cage" for your smartphone by wrapping it in aluminum foil. Then they can't track you, for sure, for no radio waves can get in or out of it. Aluminum foil works. Try it. Or you can buy a sleeve to put the phone in. Cheap ones from China work, are available on eBay for 5 bucks.
I mention this because of the recent news story that demonstrators in the Ukraine were texted by the government that they were in a demonstration location, and to get ot of there if they weren't demonstrating. You might like to shield your phone if you do not wish "them" to discover that you were in attendance at, for instance, a political or confidential business meeting, or that you and your confidante were together in hotel x at time y. Of course, the NSA listens to you, to the tune of 5 billion records per day, but they don't text you about it.