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back to article British boffin muzzled after cracking car codes

Here is a tale of two security research presentations, both looking at motor vehicle security in a world in which even the humblest shopping trolley now has more brainpower than a moonshot. Flavio Garcia, a University of Birmingham lecturer familiar with insecurity in car systems – here, for example, is a paper he co-authored …

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security through obscurity

If an academic paper isn't published then those bad guys will never work out how to start the car, right?

This kind of head in the sand attitude causes problems. Instead of gagging people, get them working on the next generation of solutions!

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Holmes

Murder through obscurity

No, it's much worse than that. How do you think Michael Hastings was murdered?

Hint: Basically a two-part hack. (1) Disable brakes. (2) Initiate maximum acceleration.

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Facepalm

Re: Murder through obscurity

".....How do you think Michael Hastings was murdered?....." Yeah, 'cos all those eye-witness reports of Hastings driving way too fast and out-of-control also speak of a CIA guy hanging off the open bonnet with a laptop plugged into the Mercedes' diagnostics port. Not.

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Re: security through obscurity

So you don't think it is irresponsible and pouring petrol on the flames by publicly revealing to all and sundry the details of how to hack into a VW? Incredible what the world has come to.

Any responsible person, academic or otherwise, would simply have gone to VW and perhaps other car manufacturers and told them there is a very significant issue which they need to deal with, helped them, etc, all quietly and responsibly.

Instead this is purely about ego, and that's par for course in this age of Twatter, Farcebook and other egosh!te.

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FAIL

Re: security through obscurity

Your making a rather large assumption that he didnt go to VW and Megros first.

It is entirely possible (and I would think probable) that he contacted Megros and VW and told them of their gaping security holes, and instead of working with him to come up with a fix, they ignored him and buried there heads in the sand. Only now that he was planning to reveal to the world their incompetence, are they reacting. Andreacting badly.

And by the way, I havent heard anything out of Megros or VW to say that they are going to do anything about their gaping security holes. Have you?

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@Frank 14

"Any responsible person, academic or otherwise, would simply have gone to VW and perhaps other car manufacturers and told them there is a very significant issue which they need to deal with, helped them, etc, all quietly and responsibly."

I would presume so to.

And they "quietly and responsibly" got a gag order for him.

Large bureaucracy behavior 1)Deny there is a problem 2)Attempt to suppress all knowledge of problem. 3)Admit there is a slight problem but it's a)very difficult to exploit and b) is an inconvenicnec 4)Issue an upgrade 5)State that "Our processes worked as planned and our customers are fully protected"

Then do it all over again when the next hole is found.

Fail for your failure to understand large corporations and their love of security by obscurity (which this is an example of).

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Re: security through obscurity

@Frank 14.

From BBC News.

"The researchers informed the chipmaker nine months before the intended publication - November 2012"

.

The humble pie is over there, go gorge on it.

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@ Shannon

Strangely it isn't normally in the specifications that the software supports a "disable brakes" instruction.

In fact the inclusion of such would be an automatic fail to meet EU safety standards, which also mandate that there is a mechanical link in both the steering and braking systems of road vehicles.

Further, for larger vehicles such as buses and trucks, they must be fitted with fail-safe braking systems. This means exactly what the name suggests: when they fail, they fail to a safe condition I.e. brakes applied.

Maybe you should not bother commenting on topics that you don't know the first thing about?

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Anonymous Coward

Re: security through obscurity

In all fairness to the original poster, you're talking about not making assumptions and then making several yourself.

I am all for these things being shared with the companies so they can work together and resolve it. Releasing it publically however inevitably will hurt the end user too, not just the company. The company I have no issues with, they designed it and made their choices. Some poor person having their car nicked because of publicity hungry willy wavers and tight lipped car companies, not really on.

Hopefully the publicity revealing there is a weakness will be enough to poke the car companies into action and ultimately the end user hopefully won't be effected anytime soon.

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Holmes

Matt in: "Hastings alive minutes before he died!"

Matt, you need to work on your logic.

> Hastings driving way too fast and out-of-control

Yes. That's more or a less the point, see? Stay with us here, this is not Sun's ZFS that fires up your hindbrain into a dissing fit.

http://whowhatwhy.com/2013/07/14/the-michael-hastings-wreck-video-evidence-offers-a-few-clues/

The only reasonable explanation is suicide. Possible if he was depressed. But in these times, one may be on a disposition matrix presto, so...

“I’ve seen military vehicles explode, but never quite like that. Look, here’s a reporter who brought down a general. He’s sending out emails saying he’s being watched. It’s four in the morning and his car explodes? Come on, you have to be naïve not to at least consider it wasn’t an accident.”

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Anonymous Coward

Re: Murder through obscurity

Cars have bluetooth and cell phone control now. You can send a signal to start your car up remotely from your phone with some models.

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Anonymous Coward

Re: security through obscurity

This is the UK. Everything must be censored until the corporate overlords decide it should be paid for.

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Re: it isn't normally in the specifications ... a "disable brakes" instruction

How do you think ABS works?

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Re: Destroyed All Braincells Re: Matt in: "Hastings alive minutes before he died!"

"Matt, you need to work on your logic....." My logic is simple - look at the available evidence before leaping to unsupported allegations. You seem to just like leaping a lot.

"......Yes. That's more or a less the point, see?....." No, it is a direct observation of the witnesses - he was driving too fast. He was not driving too fast with the windows down screaming for help, he was not trying to call anyone to say his car had gone nuts, he was simply driving too fast for quite a period before he crashed.

"......“I’ve seen military vehicles explode, but never quite like that......" Which is typical conspiracy junkie bleating from wannabe Terry Hopkins. Apart from the differences in design between military vehicles and the average Mercedes, military vehicles blow up usually due to explosions blowing them up. And then we have to ask was Terry Hopkins actually anywhere near the accident and actually witness to the "explosion"? No, he was not. Does he have any engineering training, any training in crash investigation, or even any training as a fireman dealing with car accidents? No, he does not. He's just another "expert" feeding the conspiracy junkies what they want to hear.

And then look at the scene, North Highland Avenue - a flat and straight four-lane highway with a few palm trees off on the verge. Not exactly the first choice for a cyberhacking "accident", it would seem to require a lot of skill to somehow make the Mercedes swerve off at exactly the right spot in exactly the right way to hit a tree, otherwise all they would have done was possibly give Hastings a scraped nose from the airbag. No, if you wanted to be sure, you'd wait until you had the chance to accellerate him to at least 60mph and into a wall headon. Plenty of chances for that in the city. Or wait until he was out of the city and on a road with a drop to the side, then make his car speed out over the edge. Much surer than chancing a hit with a palm tree. Oh sorry - much surer if you think LOGICALLY.

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Now ask me why ...

... I refuse to drive these monstrosities. I am the driver, not the car. This kinda shit is only asking for trouble over the long haul.

It's also why I restore & drive late 1960s & earlier automobiles and motorcycles ;-)

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Re: Now ask me why ...

I prefer the easier starting on cold mornings rather than endless amounts of cranking and then dumping half a can of "Start Ya Bastard" into the carb just to get something to happen in the cylinders.

The late '80s ECUs were not all that intelligent, a prime example being the fuel injection system on the Suzuki Swift GTI which is affectionately known as having all the brains of "a retarded gopher".

The inputs were: Mass Air Flow sensor (hotwire type), throttle position sensor, RPM.

The sum total of it's function? While the throttle was not heavily stomped on, the RPMs were below 4500, it would watch the resistance level of the hot wire to determine how much air the engine was inhaling and then fire alternate pairs of injectors - where it would just sip away at the fuel. If you booted the throttle it would open all the injectors to dump some more fuel in. If the RPMs went over 4500 with your foot down, then all injectors open and pour in the fuel! (with resulting throaty DOHC noises under the bonnet and a subsequent hoist in speed).

My point is: refusing things that happen to have a small amount of circuitry in them to control some motor functions with a higher level of precision than what is capable mechanically because you're afraid you won't be in control seems a little extreme.

I agree with not being in favour of systems that wrest control from the driver in circumstances where the car thinks "DANGER WILL ROBINSON!" and immediately activates (what it thinks) are life-saving manouvres. Thus why I liked the older Swift GTI: It was mechanical aside from the fuel system. No power steering, just rack and pinion. No ABS, you just had brakes that did their job unreservedly. Manual transmission (with a first gear to second gear step that was overly large by most accounts). It wasn't perfect by any stretch, but it was simple to fix when things broke as things tend to do when they get old and can't handle the (ab)use.

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Re: Now ask me why ...

"It's also why I restore & drive late 1960s & earlier automobiles and motorcycles"

It's reasonable to drive late '60s vehicles because you enjoy them - but driving late '60s cars rather than modern ones because you feel there's a safety risk in someone surreptitiously applying nefarious blackhat tech in order to crash your car (or a safety risk in an obscure bug causing your vehicle to veer off a cliff) suggests either a profound lack of knowledge regarding progress in vehicle design, a fundamental misunderstanding of statistics, or both.

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@enerider (was: Re: Now ask me why ...)

"I prefer the easier starting on cold mornings rather than endless amounts of cranking"

Mine start first crank, every time, regardless of weather. But then, I'm a wrench.

" and then dumping half a can of "Start Ya Bastard" into the carb just to get something to happen in the cylinders."

Diethyl ether eats rings, and is contraindicated. If you think you need it, either your vehicle or your starting procedure is b0rken. Badly. Fix it, before the problem gets worse.

"the RPMs"

That's "RPM". Unless you were measuring revolutions per minutes. And how many minutes was it, exactly? Pet peeve ...

"Suzuki Swift GTI"

No. Just no. The entire "Firefly", "Metro" et alia were atrocious.

"My point is: refusing things that happen to have a small amount of circuitry in them to control some motor functions with a higher level of precision than what is capable mechanically because you're afraid you won't be in control seems a little extreme"

My point is that I AM in control of the mechanical systems of my vehicles. And I intend to keep it that way.

Kids these days ...

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@David W. (was: Re: Now ask me why ...)

In 2010, my network could talk to my neighbor's SYNC equipped Ford.

Funny thing is I wasn't even trying ...

The only question I have is why the fuck do people feel the need for this kind of shit in cars, for fsck's sake? 24/7 real-time connectivity isn't really useful, unless you're so insecure that you need constant ego-stroking ... in which case, seek help.

We've all gone mad. Mad, I tell you ...

By way of reference, see:

http://forums.theregister.co.uk/forum/containing/716293

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Anonymous Coward

Re: @David W. (was: Now ask me why ...) @jake 04:34

Seems to me that the biggest case of ego stroking here is you making all your posts an excuse to tell us how great you are. Not sure whether to classify it as narcissism or hubris, but you're the one that needs help, grandpa. The grandpa bit, of course, assuming that your claims of your age are true. Not that we have any evidence for your veracity in anything you say. Or the means to even do a quick lookup of anything, given your choice of a nickname which might as well be anonymous.

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@AC 07:43 (was: Re: @David W. (was: Now ask me why ...)

I'm sharing life experience.

Yourself? Maybe not so much.

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Re: @David W. (was: Now ask me why ...)

In Canada there's a very good reason - getting the vehicle pre-heated in winter without leaving the keys in the ignition being one. Remote start from your phone whilst leaving the doors locked and transmission locked off is in principle an extremely useful idea. Of course systems exist that allow you to start the car and remove the key, which immobilises the transmission (such as the Police use so they can leave the engines running to drive the lights/radios/on board computers without any risk of some oik jumping in and going for a joyride), but that involves actually going outside, coming back in, changing your footwear so you don't track snow back inside, etc.

Of course if the system then refuses to put it in gear even after you've got in and inserted the key then you're stumped, but no more so than if your car gets nicked off the drive because you've left it idling to warm up, or if your engine block freezes - lets have no rose-tinted views of what getting cars going in the old days were like!

Syncing with iTunes in the house is a decidedly less practical/time-saving use however, and you'd want all the entertainment to be completely separated from actual driving sub-systems. It's not good if the entertainment system becomes a vulnerable gateway into more critical systems...

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Happy

Re: @AC 07:43 (was: @David W. (was: Now ask me why ...)

@ David W

Assuming you're referring to Jake's previous posts, why would you have ANY reason to doubt that he's a wealthy, horse-ranching, aircraft-owning, world-travelling, real-bullet-shooting, racecar-driving, lock-smithing, internet-building, arctic-survival-trained, yoof-camp-running, multiple-doctorate-holding, Stanford-MBA-achieving, data-center-building, 60's car-restoring, cider-making, network-security-expert?

Just because he appears to have done more stuff that Kim Jong Il, doesn't mean he's making it up! I'm amazed though, that he finds time to post here with all that going on! :)

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Anonymous Coward

Re: @AC 07:43 (was: @David W. (was: Now ask me why ...)

You missed out:

Dog breeding (Sighthounds)

Farming; both arable and pastoral

Cooking

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Facepalm

Re: Now ask me why ...

I love you people, "Things were better the old days! Todays music/cars/films/chocolate/children/books are smaller, worse, never work and are full of poodle urine!".

Sorry but given the huge advances in vehicle safety, time-saving gadgets and incredible engine efficiency in the last 45 years I'll stick with my 4 year old Honda CRV and swap it for something new in a few years time. It may have a computer on board that's possibly more powerful than the first PC I owned and my car would be dead in the water if it goes wrong. However all those amazing advancements are probably the reason I was able to simply get out of my car about 2 seconds after some twat smacked into it at 30mph, without any ill effects and also allowed me to turn the air blue for 15 seconds having a go at the other driver!

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Anonymous Coward

Rise of the Neo-Luddites

My car needs more manual hand cranking than your car

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WTF?

Re: @enerider (was: Now ask me why ...)

I've got some tinfoil hats you might like to buy...

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Anonymous Coward

Re: Now ask me why ...

Jake, if you refer to the heap of junk scrap metal that the US call cars, then feel free to restore them.

The rest of the world moved on from live axels sometime ago.

BTW I built and owned a kit car using a tuned Ford Cortina lump, but even i used electronic ignition and a basic ECU to get over shitty points and damp start issues.

Mine rarely started 1st time, but extreme tuned engines with twin 45's tend not to (car was producing double the bhp of the stock build), but without the ecu, I'd be lucky if it started 10th time.

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Happy

Re: @AC 07:43 (was: @David W. (was: Now ask me why ...)

You missed out:

And has never seen porn on the 'net.

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Re: porn

Actually, that's somewhat plausible when you're dealing with geeks.

So quoth ESR:

"interest in spectator sports is low to non-existent; sports are something one does, not something one watches on TV."

http://www.catb.org/jargon/html/physical.html

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Re: @enerider (was: Now ask me why ...)

"Mine start first crank, every time, regardless of weather. But then, I'm a wrench."

My cars start first crank every time, unless the Mrs accidentally leaves the inside light on in the car all night and the battery has gone dead. Being mechanically able or not has little bearing on this. Mechanical ability comes into play when things *don't* work first time - which is the point where you fix it yourself or someone you know who knows how to fix it gets involved.

The hard starting scenario I was painting is a classic example when it is somewhere below zero, and the dual carbs have decided that they'd rather not haul in fuel just now, which was the case for a friends TE71 Corolla using the 2T DOHC. This issue was solved when the carbs were hauled out and heaved into the abyss and replaced with fuel injection, which also provided a performance boost into the bargain. (The 2T then achieving the designation 2T-GEU in Toyota parlance).

The "Start Ya Bastard" part of that was a prime example of when attempting to start the lawnmower after the 50th pull and getting nowhere fast, as many lawnmower owners will attest to, especially when you've got better things to do than take apart the lawnmower to figure out what isn't working.

I get the "RPM" versus "RPMs" nitpick, but you got exactly what I meant, right?

Somehow you seem to think the circuitry in the ECU is going to decide that it won't take commands from you anymore and go on holiday without warning. Don't like what the electronic box of tricks from the manufacturer is doing? Then haul it out and find yourself a Megasquirt or other replacement EFI option.

They are out there, and will happily take commands and adjustments from you to the letter. You can even adjust the figures and fine-tune it while driving! (by having someone in the passenger seat performing the adjustment via the serial cable, or having someone you know drive the vehicle while you perform the adjustments.) You can't do this with a carb. (unless you've got some manual knobs and switches to perform tiny adjustments from the drivers' seat)

"No. Just no. The entire "Firefly", "Metro" et alia were atrocious."

Oh good. Clearly they're too reliable / cheap to fix / cheap to run / simple as a bag of spanners for you.

The Swift GTI was a good little pocket rocket and is still used in various levels of motorsport internationally including rallying, and is often used by racers who motorsport on a shoestring budget. The engines are not huge or heavy, and are not complicated to take apart and put together with the inside parts being clearly labelled as to what direction and order to assemble them in (which made learning how engines work a whole lot easier).

"My point is that I AM in control of the mechanical systems of my vehicles. And I intend to keep it that way."

As has been probably pointed out to you before I did, you can always haul out the manufacturer-provided options for one of your own that you can control to your hearts' content. The circuitry is no more self-aware than a lightswitch is. The ECU will do stupid shit if it is told to do stupid shit. Tune a carb wrong and it won't work correctly and there is no difference in this regard with an ECU - the difference is simply in the "how" you tune it. The ECU can be as "stupid" or as "smart" as you wish it to be. Avoiding ECUs altogether just appears to be the result of some irrational fear of circuit boards.

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Go

Re: enerider Re: @enerider (was: Now ask me why ...)

".....As has been probably pointed out to you before I did, you can always haul out the manufacturer-provided options for one of your own that you can control to your hearts' content....." I had a petrolhead mate a few years back that used to do a nice sideline in "backdating" cars for students and the like that couldn't afford to keep buying replacement parts. He used to do things like taking out electric window mechs and replacing them with hand winders from the scrapyard, the winders lasting indefinitely whereas electric mechs would be problematic on the old cars students could afford. As a grad, one of the reasons I had an old Mini long after I could afford a "better" car was because there really was very little that could go wrong on a Mini, and very little I couldn't fix myself (I've even swapped the engine out of one in a friend's garage without any specialist tools).

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Happy

Re: enerider @enerider (was: Now ask me why ...)

A good idea that too - which is why I enjoyed owning a Swift GTI or two as the only computer onboard was there for the fuel injection and nothing more! (which made diagnosis a relatively straightforward process as well)

Everything else was manual, mechanical, and therefore easy enough to fix myself - a big plus when you were a student living on whatever the fast food job could provide.

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Anonymous Coward

How to stop this happening again

Just jail the directors of the companies who allow such security breaches. Perhaps they will start taking security seriously then.

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Re: How to stop this happening again

I almost agree. However, it is unreasonable to prosecute just for the presence of security issues. In such an environment, no one could risk producing anything. We have to accept that imperfections are inevitable in any nontrivial system. It is especially unfair when systems use third party components.

Where I would support jail is for failure to react to the discovery of issues in a professional and timely manner.

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Joke

Re: How to stop this happening again

Seems reasonable to me.

We could even take it further - if you were to be burgled then we should throw you in jail, not the thief, as clearly you didn't take security seriously enough. It's a flawless plan: deter people from owning anything in case it is stolen and theft will automatically drop to zero!

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Re: How to stop this happening again

@djack

I agree, partly. My caveat is around the "it's secret, therefore it must be secure" mindset some companies have. Mifare comes to mind as one example.

Publish the crypto algorithms and code for 3rd party scrutiny, or face the possibility of crippling jail and/or fines. Don't have to open source them for world+dog to use, but for $DIETYs sake get some people who know what they're doing to validate that you're not a complete muppet.

If your device or application is used often enough or in high value target, bad people will find out exactly how sh*t your security is, and possibly before the good people.

IMHO if you insist that your security is "good enough" and don't take steps to validate this, then you deserve everything you get.

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Re: How to stop this happening again

Actually I'd opt for making the reimburse the owners of stolen vehicles for losses from their own pockets. That'll get their attention real fast. Doesn't need the reasonable response time loophole either.

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Anonymous Coward

I actually doubt it's head in the sand situation for VW; it's probably more like they haven't a bloody clue how to fix the problem, and even if they did, they haven't a clue how to (a) spin it to their advantage, and/or (b) issue a recall without breaking the bank.

So, in the final analysis, this one would appear to be all about PR and money.

Sad, but not much of a surprise, really.

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Headmaster

I remember many years ago reading how a car manufacturer, upon discovering a potentially fatal flaw in a component, simply calculated the cost of law suits, dead bodies and bad press expected over the life of the vehicles with the flaw versus the cost of a recall, and concluded it was cheaper to let a few customers expire than fix it.

Big numbers, actuaries and bean counters.

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" I actually doubt it's head in the sand situation for VW; it's probably more like they haven't a bloody clue how to fix the problem, and even if they did, they haven't a clue how to (a) spin it to their advantage, and/or (b) issue a recall without breaking the bank. "

So just normal ' head up their arse' business management then.

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"I remember many years ago reading how a car manufacturer, upon discovering a potentially fatal flaw in a component, simply calculated the cost of law suits, dead bodies and bad press expected over the life of the vehicles with the flaw versus the cost of a recall, and concluded it was cheaper to let a few customers expire than fix it."

Probably happened more than once, but was famously exposed in the Ford Pinto case. What they didn't calculate in was the cost of people finding out they had done the calculation and getting abused for it. I believe nowadays fines are set up to make this choice uneconomical in any case.

It's also worth noting that the famous Ford Pinto Memo didn't actually say exactly that, and may not have even been about the Pinto specifically, but rather was a particularly callous cost-benefit submitted to a government regulator. Still, not a shining moment for Ford.

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I remember that film. Its called "Class Action" and starred Gene Hackman and Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio.

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Big numbers, actuaries and bean counters

Balancing the costs of deaths against fixes happens every day, and not just in the car industry. The FAA and other world aviation bodies agree on the mandated fixes based on the cost implement against the cost of a crash. Assume a $5million payout to 200 passengers - does the fix cost more, it's not going to happen.

Life is hard, and one way or another you ain't getting out alive

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Anonymous Coward

"Probably happened more than once, but was famously exposed in the Ford Pinto case. What they didn't calculate in was the cost of people finding out they had done the calculation and getting abused for it"

The document in question wasn't an internal memo, it was a document submitted to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). At the time the document was drawn up and submitted to the NHTSA Ford were already recalling Pinto's to improve the cushioning of the fuel tanks.

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I remember that film.

>>I remember that film.

More latterly, fight club gave it a nod.

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re: haven't a bloody clue how to fix

You're probably right. But since it's observationally no different than "head in the sand" and "head in the sand" is quicker to type, I think we should stick with that for ease of use purposes.

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Unhappy

"I remember many years ago reading how a car manufacturer, upon discovering a potentially fatal flaw in a component, simply calculated the cost of law suits, dead bodies and bad press expected over the life of the vehicles with the flaw versus the cost of a recall, and concluded it was cheaper to let a few customers expire than fix it."

I'm sure this could be several incidents but the one that comes to mind was the Ford Pinto. The fix cost $55 a car and the bean counters looked at likely frequency and set let them burn.

They did.

Until a child of about 11 or 12 survived the fuel tank explosion and the 3rd degree burns. The jury awarded punitive damages for knowing it could happen and playing roulette with their customers lives and bodies.

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The Ford Pinto

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There's not much left anymore.

They monitor everything you do on the internet, and censor what you're allowed to see. They capture everything you say on your mobile, and process it for keywords. They know everyone you have called. They monitor your movements with automated camera systems, and store the data for future use against you.

They tell you what you can do where, what you should and shouldn't do. What you should and shouldn't eat, drink, smoke. They keep trying to introduce rules about what they'll do for you (or won't do) if you don't comply with their 'recommendations'.

This controlling things some people dislike, has become so popular even the private groups have started to get in on the act, they're going to censor what you can see on shop shelves now.

So no one should be surprised that academic research can be censored to suit private interests... it's only one more small freedom the people of Britain no longer have...

The only amusing aspect is that they all believe they can pass negative comments about countries like Russia, and China, whilst they oversee the conversion of their own country to something which resembles East Berlin of the early 1980s.

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