It isn't the colonialism per se, it's the transition and reason for the transition from colonial to independent state. Your list of former colonies represents transitions that were conducted orderly with established governments ready to take on the socioeconomic burden of becoming independent. If you look at much of Africa oftentimes the transition consisted of the imperial power saying "bye, we're leaving now" as opposed to being violently kicked out, smooth transitions to new governments or moving from one power to another.
Of all former imperial colonies with abrupt transitions India has, IMHO, done the best but part of that was because the political structure suckled up to Soviet structures for a softer transition and has done a good job of weaning itself into a global power. Sure, they could have done better but considering they started by groping around in the darkness of global politics it wasn't bad.
In all, it's generally the most recently independent colonies which is where the trouble is. Ghana, which is 10 years "younger" than India, seems to be doing quite well while Somalia which gained independence only three years after Ghana isn't. Zimbabwe isn't much of a surprise given it's such a young pup and given South Africa's heritage it's no surprise either.
Africa also has another problem that doesn't get mentioned in the sociopolitical context and the prevalence of violence. Africa, for all it's history, is a young continent that most likely just needs to grow up. By young I refer to the age of the population which is probably a result of poor health care and rampant disease. If you look where there tends to be a surplus of strife you will find a rather low median age everywhere in the world. Let's have a look; Somolia: 17.7 years, Zimbabwe: 19.5, Rwanda: 18.7, Sudan: 18.9, Sierra Leone: 19.0* compared to India: 26.7, Hong Kong: 44.5 & Singapore: 33.6. (Quickly before someone jumps up and says Mexico: 27.7 has lots of drug violence. I'd call that an aberration since once you get away from the borders where it's really prevalent it either isn't reported or isn't much of a problem and besides it's all backlash from the current version of Prohibition.) Africa's real problem is there aren't enough old cantankerous fucks, like many of us here, who won't put up with the crap given off by the young dumb and full of come little shits who have nothing better to do than cause trouble.
*All taken from the CIA World Factbook so salt as required.