RE: can someone explain the physics behind the colour artifacts?
As Nathan Brown says, the camera uses multiple sensors - probably in this case three with colour filters and one without. These are obviously not in the same place and so would otherwise give slight registration errors between the images. So the camera system includes compensation, both for this and for any difference in timing (ie taking into account the movement of the aircraft carrying the camera) - it is likely that the sensors are not read at the same time, but one after the other for economy of hardware. The effect of the latter is that any moving object will appear in different places in the pictures.
But the aircraft shown is moving "fairly quickly", so it looks like the blue image was read first, then the green image, then the red one, and finally a "panchromatic" (ie sensitive across the whole spectrum). Between reading the blue and green cameras, the aircraft has moved a bit, then by the time the red is read, the aircraft has moved a bit more, and finally it's moved even more when the last image is read.
The computer running the system will adjust the images to take account of the movement of the camera, so the ground will fit together perfectly. What it can't do is correct for the fast moving object in the middle of the picture !
The same process, and same issues can occur in lower cost systems that use one sensor and multiple colour wheels - ie it applies the blue filter and takes an image, applies the green filter and takes an image, and so on. During each delay, the scenery changes, and a fast moving object will appear as shown.